Search Results

You are looking at 141 - 150 of 536 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All

Despite extensive analysis of the motor functions of the basal ganglia and the fact that multisensory information processing appears critical for the execution of their behavioral action, little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN). In the present study, we set out to describe the sensory modality distribution and to determine the proportions of multisensory units within the CN and the SN. The separate single sensory modality tests demonstrated that a majority of the neurons responded to only one modality, so that they seemed to be unimodal. In contrast with these findings, a large proportion of these neurons exhibited significant multisensory cross-modal interactions. Thus, these neurons should also be classified as multisensory. Our results suggest that a surprisingly high proportion of sensory neurons in the basal ganglia are multisensory, and demonstrate that an analysis without a consideration of multisensory cross-modal interactions may strongly underrepresent the number of multisensory units. We conclude that a majority of the sensory neurons in the CN and SN process multisensory information and only a minority of these units are clearly unimodal.

Restricted access

Abstract

Introduction

To evaluate the automated cartridge-based PCR approach ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay targeting the ORF-sequence and the N-gene of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods

In line with the suggestions by Rabenau and colleagues, the automated ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay was challenged with strongly positive samples, weakly positive samples and negative samples. Further, intra-assay and inter-assay precision as well as the limit-of-detection (lod) were defined with quantified target RNA and DNA. The Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-Cov-2 Assay was used as gold standard.

Results

Concordance between the ARIES assay and the Cepheid assay was 100% for strongly positive samples and for negative samples, respectively. For weakly positive samples as confirmed applying the Cepheid assay, a relevant minority of 4 out of 15 samples (26.7%) went undetected by the ARIES assay. Intra- and inter-assay precision were satisfactory, while the lod was in the 103 DNA copies/reaction-range, in the 103 virus copies/reaction-range, or in the 103–104 free RNA copies/reaction-range in our hands.

Conclusions

The automated ARIES assay shows comparable test characteristics as the Cepheid assay focusing on strongly positive and negative samples but a slightly reduced sensitivity with weakly positive samples. Decisions on diagnostic use should include considerations on the lod.

Open access

. 5 Ogbu, J. U. (1978) Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross Cultural Perspective . New York, Academic Press. 6 Ogbu, J. U. (1983) Minority

Open access

) Golubeva, Maria (2010) ’Different History, Different Citizenship? Competing Narratives and Diverging Civil Enculturation in Majority and Minority Schools in Estonia and Latvia’ Journal of Baltic Studies , Vol. 41, No. 3, 315

Restricted access

Serbia was an Ottoman province for almost four centuries; after some rebellions, the First and Second Uprising, she received the status of autonomous principality in 1830, and became independent in 1878. Due to the historical and cultural circumstances, the first stage music form was komad s pevanjem (theater play with music numbers), following with the first operas only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Contrary to the usual practice to depict “golden age” of medieval national past, like in many other traditions of national opera, the earliest Serbian operas were dedicated to the recent past and coexistence with Ottomans. Thus the operas Na uranku (At dawn, 1904) by Stanislav Binički (1872–1942), Knez Ivo od Semberije (Prince Ivo of Semberia, 1911) by Isidor Bajić (1878–1915), both based on the libretti by the leading Serbian playwright Branislav Nušić, and also Zulumćar (The Hooligan, librettists: Svetozar Ćorović and Aleksa Šantić, 1927) by Petar Krstić (1877–1957), presented Serbia from the first decades of the nineteenth century. Later Serbian operas, among which is the most significant Koštana (1931, revised in 1940 and 1948) by Petar Konjović (1883–1970), composed after the theatre play under the same name by the author Borisav Stanković, shifts the focus of exoticism, presenting a life of a south-Serbian town in 1880. Local milieu of Vranje is depicted through tragic destiny of an enchanting beauty, a Roma singer Koštana, whose exoticism is coming from her belonging to the undesirable minority. These operas show how the national identity was constructed – by libretto, music and iconography – through Oriental Self. The language (marked by numerous Turkish loan words), musical (self)presentation and visual image of the main characters of the operas are identity signifiers, which show continuity as well as perception of the Ottoman cultural imperial legacy.

Restricted access

A diverticulosis a nyugati lakosságban az egyik leggyakoribb gastrointestinalis kórkép, amely 70 éves kor felett a lakosság több mint 50%-ában kimutatható. Tünetek az érintettek egynegyedében alakulnak ki, egyharmadukban szövődményekkel. A diagnózis ma legtöbbször kolonoszkópiával történik, a szövődmények közül a diverticulitisben a legfontosabb diagnosztikus módszer a hasi CT, vérzésben a kolonoszkópia, súlyos esetekben az angiográfia. A tünetekkel járó, szövődménymentes diverticularis betegség kezelésében előrehaladást jelentett a fel nem szívódó antibiotikumok és az 5-aminoszalicilátok adása. A szövődménymentes diverticulitis kezelésének legfontosabb eleme a széles spektrumú antibiotikumok adása, míg a szövődményes esetek nagyobb hányada sebészi kezelést igényel. A konzervatív kezelés, az endoszkópos és az invazív radiológiai módszerek fejlődésével csökken a sürgős műtétre szoruló betegek aránya, és az elektív műtéti indikációja is változik. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 205–213.

Open access

Absztrakt

A 20. század tehetségideálja a beilleszkedni képes kiválóságok, a tesztek által azonosítható kiemelkedő képességekkel és kreativitással jellemzett egyének. A tehetség azonban nem mérhető. Egyre több adat bizonyítja, hogy a mégoly alaposan kidolgozott eljárások is megbicsaklanak a sajátos agyi szerveződésű egyéneken, a kivételeken, a sajátos kisebbségen, akikből egyre több van, és akik között sokan kiemelkedő teljesítményekre lehetnek képesek. A tehetség azonosításának első és legfontosabb buktatója a kreativitás. Az alkotóerő lényegét tekintve az azonosíthatatlanságot jelenti. Éppen attól kreatív valami, hogy az addig létezőt meghaladja. A kreatív személyek legtöbbször zavarként jelennek meg. Az átütő tehetségekre jellemző kiegyenlítetlen képességprofil és a sajátos személyiség megnyilvánulásai szokásos mérési eljárásainkat megbízhatatlanná és a tehetség azonosítására alkalmatlanná teszik.

Restricted access

The present manuscript has four goals: 1. the description of findings regarding the structure of social identity of parents and their adolescent children under the condition of permanent internal conflict, in religious-Zionist communities in the settlements and within the Israeli official borders before 1967 (the Green Lines); 2. validation of this identity structure by the Schwartz value model; 3. the examination of the differences between family members in the strength of their identity; and 4. the examination of the differences between settlers vs. non-settlers in the strength of their identity. A sample consisting of 1328 participants were administered an original Identity and Conflict Questionnaire, and the Schwartz portrait value questionnaire. In partial agreement with our predictions, a SSA statistical procedure uncovered a circumflex-like identity structure, which consisted of four semantic regions: 1. most of the items were situated in one semantic region, and were identified as religious-settlers' identity; 2. across this region smaller numbers of items of a distinct Israeli identity were negatively correlated with the former. In addition, two structures were posed in-between these two identities; 3. a sense of conflict between these identities, and 4. a belief in the ability to influence the non-religious out-group in the Israeli society. No differences were found between parents and their adolescent children, or between those living beyond and within the green lines. The finding that Schwartz's model of values was correlated with the four identities in the expected way supported the construct validity of the findings. The findings of relatively simple and widely shared structure of strong religious-settlers' identity and the relatively weak sense of conflict regarding this identity, were interpreted by us as possibly serving a coping aim, i.e., a mode of in-group communication that supports the endurance of this social and political minority group within the antagonistic social surroundings.

Restricted access

Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) are incessant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to trade in both intra and extra-African trade. New SPS measures are now set up in the African Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) that amalgamate three existing regional economic communities (RECs): The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the South African Development Community (SADC), and the East African Community (EAC).

This article compares and contrasts the SPS measures obligations as set out in Annex 15 of the TFTA to the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement). Additionally, the application of ‘abusive SPS measures based on minority science’ as non-tariff trade barriers to both internal and external African trade especially on agricultural products is analysed. An increase in transparency and accountability in the formulation of NTBs monitoring mechanisms in the COMESA, SADC, and EAC would address this ever present problem. The TFTA in Annex 15 is a case of SPS-Minus as it has a number of serious shortcomings including the lack of important obligations of sufficient risk assessment, non-discrimination, equivalence, the precautionary principle, and specific reference to consultations and dispute settlement. Notwithstanding these omissions, the TFTA has the potential for great achievement in the curbing of NTBs generally and unjustified SPS measures specifically because of the monitoring, transparency, and harmonisation obligations. If the Tripartite mandate, however, turns out to be like most other ‘loose’ integration efforts in Africa, then there is reason to believe that the NTB monitoring and reporting mechanism is not going to bear much fruit.

Full access

Egy korábbi kutatás megmutatta, hogy a magas minőségű formális intézményi háttérhez alacsony szintű társadalmi bizalom társul az Egyesült Királyságban. Jelen cikk célja ennek a paradoxonnak a feloldása, melyet a királyság heterogén társadalmi jellegében keresünk. Az elemzés az etnikai, vallási és jövedelmi alapú különbségekre összpontosít, amiket a közösségen kívüli hálózatnak, a közösségen belüli bizalomnak, a bizalom körének és a külső, formális kikényszeríthetőség szükségességének mátrixában vizsgál. Három tényező – koncentrált, nagyon diverz területek, korlátozott közösségen kívüli kapcsolattal rendelkező, szoros közösségek egymás mellett élése és a kisebbségi csoportok nélkülözésnek való nagy mértékű kitettsége – adja a puzzle megoldását. Mindezek tovagyűrűző, bizalomromboló hatását tovább erősíti az alacsony jövedelmű népességcsoport igazságszolgáltatáshoz való hozzáférésének korlátozottsága, aminek eredményeként olyan környezet jön érte, ahol a külső kikényszeríthetőség sem informális, sem formális intézményeken keresztül nem érhető el.

Restricted access