Mészlepedékes csernozjom vályogtalajon, az MTA TAKI Nagyhörcsök Kísérleti Telepén vizsgáltuk a K és B elemek közötti kölcsönhatásokat 1988-ban napraforgó jelzőnövénnyel. Az alaptrágyázás 100–100 kg N és P2O5·ha-1 volt. A K-szinteket 0, 1000 és 2000 kg·ha-1 K2O feltöltő adaggal, a B-szinteket 0, 20, 40 és 60 kg·ha-1 adaggal állítottuk be 1987 őszén, lucerna elővetemény után. A műtrágyákat Ca-ammónium-nitrát, szuperfoszfát, 60%-os KCl és 11%-os bórax formában alkalmaztuk. Főparcellaként a 3 K-szint, alparcellaként a 4 B-szint szolgált. A kísérletet 12 kezeléssel 3 ismétlésben, összesen 36 parcellával, osztott parcellás (split-plot) elrendezésben állítottuk be.
A termőhely szántott rétege 5% körüli CaCO3-ot, 3% humuszt, 20–22% agyagot tartalmazott. A talaj eredetileg N, Ca, Mg és Mn elemekkel jól, káliummal közepesen, P és Zn elemekkel viszonylag gyengén ellátottnak minősült. A talajvíz 13–15 m mélyen helyezkedik el, a termőhely aszályérzékeny. A napraforgó tenyészideje alatt 290 mm csapadékot kapott (a sokéves átlaghoz közeli érték), igen száraz volt viszont a május és a július. A főbb megállapítások, eredmények:
– Betakarítás idején a ha-onkénti tőszám 34 ezerről 23 ezerre csökkent igazolhatóan a B-terhelés nyomán a K-kontroll parcellákon. A tőszámcsökkenés nagyobb tányérokat, ezerkaszattömeget és tányéronkénti kaszattömeget indukálva terméskiegyenlítődést eredményezett. A káliummal feltöltött parcellákon a bór ilyen irányú negatív hatása elmaradt. A kaszat 2,1, a szár szintén 2,1, a tányér 1,3, az összes légszáraz föld feletti biomassza tömege 5,5 t·ha-1 mennyiséget tett ki.
– A B-trágyázás igazolhatóan növelte a napraforgó szerveinek B-tartalmát, míg a K-trágyázás igazolhatóan vagy tendencia jelleggel mérsékelte. Az aratáskori tányérban halmozódott fel a legtöbb bór (69 mg·kg-1 átlagos koncentrációban), mely a szár és a kaszat átlagos B-készletét mintegy 3-szorosan múlta felül. A K-trágyázással a növényben mért K-tartalom érdemben nem módosult.
– A 4–6 leveles korú gyökérben főként a Na és Fe, a hajtásban a N, K, Ca és Mg, az aratáskori tányérban a B mellett a Ca és Cu, míg a kaszatban a N, P, Zn és Cu elemek dúsultak. A szár N, P, Zn és Cu elemekben szegényedett el, melyekben a generatív kaszat dúsult.
– Az 1 t kaszattermés + a hozzá tartozó szár és tányér melléktermés elemtartalma közelítően 46 kg N, 40 kg K (47 kg K2O), 27 kg Ca (38 kg CaO), 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5), 7 kg Mg (11 kg MgO) mennyiséget tett ki. Adataink iránymutatóul szolgálhatnak a napraforgó elemigényének becslésekor a szaktanácsadásban.
– A talajzsaroló, illetve trágyaigényesnek tartott napraforgó trágyaigénye drasztikusan lecsökken kombájn betakarításnál, amennyiben a K, Ca és Mg elemek döntően a táblán maradó melléktermésben találhatók és el sem kerülnek az adott tábláról.
Authors:N. Mohamed, A. Mariod, S. Yagoub, and Y. Dagash
Akbari, P., Ghalavand, A., Modarres Sanavy, A. M., Agha Alikhani, M. (2011): The effect of biofertilizers, nitrogen fertilizer and farmyard manure on grain yield and seed quality of sunflower ( Helianthus annus
The present study aimed to determine the effect of precipitation and fertilization (NPKCaMg) on the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in a long-term field experiment set up in Nyírlugos (Nyírség region, Hungary: N: 47° 41′ 60″ and E: 22° 2′ 80″) on a Haplic Luvisol with popular rotation crops. Over the 40 year period, from 1962 to 2002, SOC pool values ranged between 2.32 and 3.36 mg·kg
. On the untreated control plots the values remained nearly constant (3.31 mg·kg
: ±0.29 mg·kg
and 0.52 mg·kg
). In the 1st 20-year period (1963–1982), there was a significant (
< 0.001) decrease (16%) on all experimental plots, which may be due to the winter half year (WHY) precipitation (228 mm), summer half year (SHY) precipitation (288 mm), the NPKCaMg fertilizer application rate (64 kg·ha
), and the potato-rye-wheat-lupin-sunflower crop sequence. In the 2nd 20-year period (1983–2002) SOC pool values varied between 3.13 and 4.47 mg·kg
. The 16.9% significant (
< 0.001) increase 16.9% could be attributed to the lower WHY (204 mm) precipitation, higher SHY (320 mm) precipitation, higher NPKCaMg fertilizer rate (213 kg·ha
), and the sunflower-grass-barley-tobacco-wheat-triticale cropping system. NPKCaMg fertilization resulted in a significant (
< 0.001) decline (16.6%) in SOC in comparison to the control plots in the 1st 20-year interval, while in the 2nd 20-year period a significant (
< 0.001) rise (up to 31.9%) was registered. During the 40 experimental years the seasonal correlations (R2) among SOC (mg·kg
), WHY and SHY precipitation (mm) ranged from 0.3343 to 0.9078 (on the
< 0.001 significance level). The correlations (R
) on the influence of NPKCaMg fertilization on SOC (mg·kg
) and precipitation (mm) were significant (
< 0.001): the means for WHY, SHY and over the 40 years were 0.4691, 0.6171 and 0.6582, respectively. Organic carbon reserves (mg·kg
) in soils decreased linearly as precipitation increased (from 3.22 to 7.27 mm·yr
). In case this trend — increasing precipitation caused by climate change reduces SOC in arable soils — will continue, and is aggravated by warming temperatures and a more altering climate (as predicted by climate change forecasts), the livelihoods of many Hungarian and European farmers may be substantially altered. Thus, farmers must take into consideration the climate (WHY and SHY precipitation), fertilization (NPKCaMg), and cropping (tuber-seed-tobacco-protein-oil-forage) changeability to optimize their SOC pool, soil carbon sequestration, soil sustainability and crop management in the nearest future.
Authors:Vladimir Ostry, Jarmila Skarkova, and Jiri Ruprich
Alternaria alternata is an important mycotoxin-producing species that occurs on cereals, sunflower seeds, oilseed rape, tomato, carrot, lentils, olives, various fruits, etc. A. alternata produces a number of mycotoxins, including alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), L-tenuazonic acid (TeA), and other less-toxic metabolites. The objective of this study was a toxicological characterization of A. alternata strains isolated from wheat (34 strains) and grapes (11 strains). All the A. alternata strains were cultured on rice to evaluate their toxigenic potential (incubated in the dark at 25°C for 21 days). An instrumental high-performance thinlayer chromatography (HPTLC) for the quantification of ALT, AOH, AME, and TeAin rice cultures has been developed. The mycotoxins were extracted with methanol and ammonium sulfate in water and the extracted solutions were further cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction. The silica gel layers pre-coated with oxalic acid in methanol were used for separation with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (6:3:1, ν/ν) as the mobil phase. The chromatogram of ALT, AOH, AME was scanned in fluorescence mode after excitation at λ = 254 nm with λ = 400 nm measuring filter: SENS and SPAN parameters were 195 and 15, respectively. The chromatogram for determination of TeA was sprayed with solution of iron trichloride in ethanol to reveal the spots of TeA and scanned in absorbance mode at λ = 254 nm at the SENS and SPAN parameters 145 and 10, respectively. The RF value of ALT under these conditions was 0.25, AOH 0.36, AME 0.49, and TeA 0.30, respectively. The recovery (the mass fraction) was 0.59–0.76 in the range 20–100 mg kg−1 rice cultures. The relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) were 7–19%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of ALT, AOH, AME was 1.0 mg kg−1, LOQ of TeA was 5.0 mg kg−1 in rice cultures with Alternaria alternata mycelium.
In India wheat is conventionally planted on flat-bed and irrigation is applied by flooding, which results in low water-use efficiency. Efficient use of irrigation water is a major researchable issue in most command areas for improving crop productivity. Resource conservation technologies aimed at improving productivity and water-use efficiency such as raised-bed planting have been found useful in wide row crops like maize, cotton, sunflower, sugarcane, etc. However, such information is not available for a relatively narrow row crop like wheat. A field experiment was conducted during 2002–04 at New Delhi on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the performance of wheat crop under resource conservation techniques (RCTs), viz. furrow-irrigated raised-bed (FIRB), broad-bed and furrow (BBF), raised-bed and sunken-bed (RBSB) and conventional flat-bed (FB) in main plots, and 4 irrigation regimes, viz. irrigation only at crown root initiation (CRI); irrigation at 0.9 and 1.2 IW/CPE (irrigation water/cumulative pan evaporation) ratio and irrigations at six critical physiological growth stages in subplots. Wheat performed equally well under all the RCTs with respect to grain yield. The maximum grain yield was recorded under 1.2 IW/CPE ratio, which was at par with 6 irrigations at critical growth stages, but significantly higher than 0.9 IW/CPE and one irrigation at CRI. Bed planting techniques involving FIRB and BBF recorded significantly lower consumptive use (CU) of water than RBSB and FB. There was saving of 18.2 to 19.5% irrigation water by adopting FIRB compared to FB with flood irrigation. Water-use efficiency under FIRB and BBF was 8.3–22.8 and 4.9–24.8% higher respectively over the FB with flooding.
The first grown deep-rooting crop, maize in 1991 and
sunflower in 1998 did not reveal any yield loss on the contaminated soil. The
crops responding most sensitively to As were peas, winter wheat and winter
barley. In the 4
year of the trial the peas practically died out
on the highest As level. The “total” As
(digested with cc. HNO
+ cc. H
to 70-80% of the As added to the ploughed layer 4 years earlier. The NH
+ EDTA soluble As fractions revealed great fluctuations during the sampling
time. In the first 4 years the ratio of As detectable in the ploughed layer in
this form ranged between 12 and 30%, while in 2000 between 10 and 13%. On the
basis of deep profile sampling, it was established that As displayed no
significant vertical movement after 10 years, using
-acetate + EDTA method (Lakenen
& Erviö, 1974). The concentration
of As, as a rule of thumb, declined in the direction
from root-shoot-leaves-straw-grain in grain crops. The mobility of As is
limited within the soil-plant system at this site. Even on the heavily loaded
soil, the amount of As in the whole above-ground biomass remained negligible,
usually below 5-10 mg As/kg dry matter. Under such conditions, the remediation
of soil contaminated with higher loads would theoretically take thousands of
years in the case of As via plant uptake. The transfer coefficient,
expressing the total straw/soil As concentration by barley, had a value of 0.02.
As does not seem to be a very dangerous contaminant either to soil, plants or
groundwater. Extreme loads, however, caused phytotoxicity in some crops and
resulted in products unfit for animal or human consumption. Soil life was also
damaged. Higher As loads decreased nodule formation by green peas, and the
endomycorrhizal symbiosis was hindered as well.
Authors:A. Svetina, I. Jerković, Ljiljana Vrabac, and S. Ćurić
Thyroid function and morphology, liver morphology, some metabolic indices, haematological parameters and growth performance of fattening pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal (00-RPM) were examined. The control group was fed on a standard diet containing 6% sunflower seed meal (SM) during the growing period and 8% during the finishing period. The first experimental group was fed a diet in which SM was replaced by equal (6% and 8%) amounts of 00-RPM. The second experimental group was fed with a higher (8% and 10%) amount of 00-RPM. There were no significant differences between the control and experimental groups in the serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid gland and liver weights were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in both groups fed 00-RPM than in the group fed SM. The epithelium of the thyroid gland was cuboidal or columnar and the follicular area was moderately enlarged in pigs fed 00-RPM. Marked changes in liver histology were not observed. The 00-RPM diet increased (P < 0.01) the serum values of total proteins in the first fattening period. At the end of fattening both groups fed 00-RPM had higher (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) concentrations of plasma glucose than the control group. The inclusion of 10% of 00-RPM during the finishing period increased (P < 0.05) the serum values of insulin. Daily weight gain during the growing and the finishing period was higher (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups than in the control group. The results suggest that 6-10% 00-RPM can be used as a protein source in the diet of fattening pigs without poisonous side effects.