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sensitive person, the lactase enzyme produced in the small intestine is innately absent or impaired (primary lactose sensitivity), or it is an intestinal problem due to antibiotic treatment (secondary lactose intolerance), which results in acute abdominal

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(dose 1) and 120 kg ha −1 (dose 2) N treatments. Between sampling times, MDA levels changed significantly at all three nutrient levels ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. Effect of different nitrogen fertilisation levels on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) of maize

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Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.

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639 646 Yang, X.M., Cao, Z.Y., An, L.Z., Wang, Y.M. & Fang, X.W. (2006): In vitro tetraploid induction via colchicine treatment from diploid somatic embryos in

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34 33 39 Petres, J., Markus, Z., Gelencsér, É., Bogar, Z., Gajzago, I. & Czukor, B. (1990): Effect of dielectric heat-treatment on

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Our research target was to utilise vine-branch, existing in huge amounts, for energetic purposes. During our experiments, microwave (MW) treatments of different powers (400–1600 W), pressures (1–5 bar), temperatures (120–180 °C), and treatment times (3–30 min) were applied to change the physical condition of vine-branch. After MW, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used (85–100 h, 37 °C). In addition, beside MW, comparisons were made regarding various treatment methods: untreated (UTE), cooking plate (CP), and autoclave (AC), to determine to what extent they affect the final glucose yield. This yield can even further be increased by MW pre-treatment (50 W, 3–30 min, 40 °C) of the enzyme used during the hydrolysis, which reinforces the argument that enzyme activity can be increased by irradiation. A difference of 22.1% was detected among the glucose yield values in untreated and treated enzyme processes.

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This study was to examine how encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 combined with pasteurized longan juice colonized a digestive system by using a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. The results showed that encapsulated L. casei 01 and longan juice stimulated an increase of colon lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, lactic acid and various short-chain fatty acids for which acetate was substantially present in both colons followed by propionate and butyrate. On the contrary, the treatments triggered off the reduction of faecal coliforms, clostridia, and total anaerobes. To sum up, the denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis supported that treatment conditions stimulated diversities of bacteria communities occurring in both colons.

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Diverting household waste from landfill had become a must for EU member states. The mechanical and biological treatment of household wastes is one of the key method to reach this goal. The object of the mechanical handling is to separate the recyclable fraction and transform the non-recyclable part into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) for energetic use and produce fraction for biological treatment. Our challenge to identify the ideal technology for RDF production for the North-Balaton Regional Waste Management System, by studying the existing technologies, and emerging needs from the growing market especially for Cement Industry and pyrolitic technologies.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Szekér, J. Beczner, A. Halász, Á. Mayer, J.M. Rezessy-Szabó, and P. Gálfi

The adhesion of twenty-six Lactobacillusstrains to two intestinal cell lines (Caco-2P and IEC-18) and 21 Bifidobacteriumstrains to Caco-2P cells was investigated. Non-specific adherence was determined on the surface of culture plates. The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) on epithelial cells, and bacterial adhesion were investigated by Na-n-butyrate treatment. The adherence of LAB and bifidobacteria greatly varied in a strain-dependent manner. The adherence of LAB was better to IEC-18 cells than to Caco-2P cells, and bifidobacteria adhered better to Caco-2P cells than the LAB. Some strains adhered well or even better to the background than to the cells, which queries the specificity of adhesion of these strains. Na-n-butyrate treatment stimulated the differentiation of IEC-18 cells and therefore increased the number of adherent bacteria, probably because only the cell surface increased not the number of epitopes.

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Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation temperature and time were investigated on broccoli florets at different blanching treatments. In addition, retention of nutritional components,which reduced POD and LOX activities, was compared. LOX inactivation required 14 min at 70 °C, 6 min at 80 °C, 11/2 min at 90 °C, 1 min at 100 °C water blanching and 1 min for steam blanching, 2 min in microwave without water and 6 min with microwave and water. The highest nutritional content of broccoli was evaluated in microwave blanching without water by comparison to all treatments. The decline of nitrate and nitrite value of broccoli was higher under longer time blanching than under higher temperature blanching.

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