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spectrophotometric method using a UV–visible spectrophotometer (U-3010, Hitachi, Japan). When the concentration of NH 3 was lower than 200 ppm, it was analyzed by an ammonia monitor (Z-800 XP, Environmental Sensors Co., USA). NO X and NO 2 conversions were defined

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.25 mL/min. Catalyst characterization The morphological characterization of catalyst surface was observed by SEM and EDX elemental analysis on an electron probe microanalyzer (S-4700, Hitachi, Japan) at 15 kv and 15 Pa

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-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were conducted using a Rigaku D/max2500PC diffractometer (Japan) with CuK α (λ = 1.54 Å) radiation. The diffractograms were recorded in the 2θ range 5–50° in 0.02° steps with a count time of 15 s. N 2 adsorption

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prepared products were recorded by a Dmax-rA powder diffractometer (Rigaku, Japan), with Cu K α as a radiation source and a step width of 2θ = 0.02°. The concentration of PPCPs was determined by HPLC [DIONEX P680, Kromasil 100-5C18 column (4

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.5°, respectively, was calculated by using the value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) with the help of the Scherrer equation. The TPR experiment was carried out by using a Bel PCI 3135 (Bel Japan, inc.) instrument to elucidate the reduction behavior

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recorded from a Micromeritics ASAP2010 analyzer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to illustrate the morphology of the catalysts on a HITACHI S-4800 instrument. Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD) was conducted using a JAPAN

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counting time of 5 s at each point. N 2 adsorption studies were carried out to examine the porous properties of each sample. The measurements were carried out on a Belsorpmini II (BEL Japan. Inc) instrument. All the samples were pre-treated in vacuum at

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Haiying Wang, Yucheng Yang, Jianhong Wei, Ling Le, Yang Liu, Chunxu Pan, Pengfei Fang, Rui Xiong, and Jing Shi

. The surface morphologies of TNT arrays were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, S-4800), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM-2010) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (JEM 2010FEF HRTEM, JEOL, Japan). Raman spectra

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using a Minolta Spectrophotometer CM-3600 d (Japan) according to the CIE L * a * b * system. 1.9 Statistical analysis Experimental procedure used in this study was summarised in Figure 1 . The effect of applications on physical quality of bread samples

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, Tokyo, Japan). 2.10 Statistical analysis The results were expressed as the mean values ± standard deviations. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented by using Origin 8.0 followed by multiple tests in order to determine the significant

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