In order to assess the levels and behavior of129I (half-life: 1.6×107 y) and127I (stable) in the environment, we have developed analytical procedures involving neutron activation analysis (NAA). Environmental samples collected around Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, have been analyzed using this method. Ranges of129I and127I concentrations in surface soil were 0.9–180 mBq kg–1 and 1–60 mg kg–1, respectively. Higher129I concentrations were found in soil samples collected from coniferous forests, suggesting a contribution from tree canopies in the deposition of this nuclide. Most of the129I in soil, was found to be retained in the first 10 cm. The129I/127I ratios in wheat fields were lower than those in rice paddy fields.A soil sample collected by IAEA from an area contaminated by the Chemobyl accident was also determined. The129I concentration and the129I/127I ratio were 1.6 mBq kg–1 and 1.7×10–7, respectively. The129I level in this sample was higher than the values obtained in areas far from nuclear facilities in Japan. It was suggested that the analysis of129I in soils in the Chernobyl area may be useful in evaluating the131I levels at the time of the accident.Analyses of129I and127I by ICP-MS in water samples were also made. The analytical speed of this method was very high, i.e., 3 minutes for a sample. However, there is a sensitivity limitation for129I detection due to interference from129Xe with the129I peak. The detection limits for129I and127I in water samples were about 0.5 mBq ml–1 and 0.1 ng ml–1, respectively.
Authors:T. Villa-Córdoba, J. López-Palacios, M. Jiménez-Reyes, and D. Tenorio
Several ornaments named tezcacuitlapilli (coccyx-mirrors) are described and chemical analyses of raw materials (slate and
pigments) were carried out by neutron activation, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and radiography. Elemental
and statistical analyses revealed that three different kinds of slate were used in their manufacture. The white pigment contains
gypsum while ochre, yellow and red pigments contain iron oxide. These ornaments were identified as coming from the Cave of
the Sun Pyramid of Teotihuacan. An attempt was undertaken to reconstruct the contexts of their manufacture and symbolic interpretation.
Nitrogen in the human body is measured in vivo using prompt neutron capture gamma-rays. The quantity of nitrogen can then be used as measured of protein. Data are presented on three groups of subjects; volunteers of different ages, those with liver ailments, and those on peritoneal dialysis. The data show that the nitrogen measurements given information (in accord with clinical findings) which is not given by indirect methods of estimating lean body mass.
The diffusion of Mn2+ ions in CoSO4 , NiSO4 and ZnSO4 containing 1% agar gel as well as that of MnSO4 in 1% agar gel was studied at 25 °C. The diffusion coefficientsat selected concentrations were determined by the zone diffusion techniqueand by measuring the concentration of diffusing ions using neutron activationanalysis.
Between 8th July 2002 and 18th June 2004, aerosol samples were collected in Azores. Their inorganic composition was obtained
by neutron activation analysis in order to study the differences of aerosols in two atmospheric altitudes of the central north
Atlantic: (1) PICO-NARE observatory (Lower Free Troposphere-LFT) at Pico mountain summit (38,470ºN, 28,404ºW, 2,225 m a.s.l.)
in Pico Island, Azores, where air masses from the surrounding continents (Africa, Europe, Central and North America) pass
through, carrying aerosols with anthropogenic (Sb, Br, Mo, U, Se and Tb) and/or natural emissions (Fe, Co, La, Na, Sm, Cr,
Zn, Hf, K and Th); (2) TERCEIRA-NARE station (Marine Boundary Layer) at Serreta (38,69ºN, 27,36ºW, 50 m a.s.l.), in Terceira
Island, Azores, where natural aerosols (I, Cl, Na, Br and other soil related elements) are predominant. However, a combined
interpretation of the data points out to a co-existence of the anthropogenic elements Sb and Mo, eventually with similar origins
as the ones passing Pico Mountain summit. Very high concentrations and enrichment factors for Sb, Mo and Br in LFT, higher
than the ones found in other areas, confirm atmospheric long-range transport mainly from the west boundary of north Atlantic;
this may indicate eventual accumulation and persistence of those elements in the area due to the presence of Azores high pressures
or the Hadley cells effect. A significant correlation between Fe and Yb and the enrichment of rare earth elements (La, Sm,
Tb and Yb) and Th in LFT aerosols, both reflect a mineral dust intrusions from north Africa (Sahara and Sahel region).
Authors:T. Fukuyama, N. Kihou, H. Fujiwara, M. Nakashima, and E. Shiratani
In order to assess the effect of marine and terrestrial environmental change in the last decades on the sedimentation environment
in Ariake Bay, we collected three sediment cores. The concentrations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, major elements,
and rare-earth elements were measured using gamma-spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Vertical distributions of
both radionuclides and sedimentation rates, determined using Cs-137 and Pb-210ex dating methods, varied significantly among the sites.
In April 2007 the new nuclear research reactor, OPAL, was opened at Lucas Heights in Sydney. OPAL is a 20 MW open pool light
water reactor with a heavy water reflector vessel and contains a cold neutron source. It is a multi-purpose facility for radioisotope
production, irradiation services and neutron beam research. The OPAL design includes purpose-built facilities for instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) and delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA). For INAA there is a short residence time
facility in a neutron flux of around 2·1013 cm−2·s−1 and a number of long residence time facilities providing fluxes from 3·1012 to 1·1014 cm−2·s–1. The flux at the short residence time DNAA facility is around 6·1012 cm−2·s−1. The main focus for INAA at OPAL is the research community, meeting the needs of a wide range of disciplines, including mineral
processing, geology, the environment, health and archaeology. Both the relative (comparator) method and the k0-method of standardization for INAA are being established in OPAL. A description of progress, plans and capabilities are presented.
Authors:P. Bode, M. Bueno, K. Goraieb, and M. Koster-Ammerlaan
The Compton continuum in large sample neutron activation analysis has a measurable contribution from scattering of gamma-rays
in the sample itself besides from scattering in the detector. The continuum, therefore, contains information on the sample’s
composition, which may be made available by chemometrics. This hypothesis was tested on four types of animal fodder with similar
amounts of mineral supplements. First results indicate indisputable discrimination of the sample types if using peakless parts
of the gamma-ray spectra of the natural radioactivity of the materials as well as of those obtained after neutron activation
of 1 kg samples. It indicates that the valuable information on differences in, e.g., organic constituents may be obtained
by analyzing the Compton continuum.
Authors:P. Bedregal, B. Torres, M. Ubillús, P. Mendoza, and E. Montoya
The chemistry laboratory at the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) has carried out a validation method for the samples
of siliceous composition. At least seven variables affecting the robustness of the results were initially identified, which
may interact simultaneously or individually. Conventional evaluation hereof would imply a massive number of analyses and a
far more effective approach for assessment of the robustness for these effects was found in the Youden-Steiner test, which
provides the necessary information by only eight analyses for each sample type. Three reference materials were used for evaluating
the effects of variations in sample mass, irradiation duration, standard mass, neutron flux, decay time, counting time and