By the end of the seventies, there was in Venezuela a solidly entrenched scientific community. Scientists were mostly full time, satisfied or very satisfied with their work, relatively well paid and with adequate facilities to do research. Beginning in 1982, when a process of inflation and devaluation started in the country as a whole, there has been a twilight of the scientific community, leading to migration of scientists abroad or to industry. The Government has announced drastic measures to bring up the budget for science and technology from 0.3 to 2.0% of gross national product. If these measures are indeed implemented, there will be a dawn without having to go through a long night.
The North of England open air museum was established at Beamish in the early 1970s, since when the local community has radically changed in terms both of ethnicity and of occupations. Heavy industry and agriculture have been largely replaced by service and light industries. This paper explores the ways in which Beamish is engaging with local communities who have no previous experience of the collections it holds and the history it represents. The paper has been prepared from a presentation by the author to Société Internationale d’Ethnologie et de Folklore Congress, 2008, and includes material from a presentation by Chris Scott, Beamish Curator of Industry, to the Society for Folk Life Studies conference, Swansea, 2007, and reports prepared by Seb Littlewood, Rural Collections Curator, and Helen Barker, Collections Access Officer.
Summary The main characteristics, human resources, organizational development, R&D output and outcome of the Venezuelan scientific and technological community, are studied in depth for three specific dates - years 1954, 1983 and 1999 -, aiming to reveal its strengths and weaknesses and to establish its dynamics. During the first half of the twentieth century, Venezuela had no major organized or institutionalized scientific activity. From 1954 thru 1983, the State built a considerable number of institutions mostly for research and development activities. Initially, researchers came from classical professions but were later substituted by graduates in scientific and technological disciplines. Biomedical and basic sciences are the areas of knowledge favored by researchers while, in terms of intellectual creation, social sciences and humanities seem to be the less productive, despite being one of the fields of knowledge embraced by most professionals. Although from 1983 on there has been no major input to the national S&T system, the research community showed a few years of growth in absolute terms in the number of publications, however national productivity decreased during the last decade of the century. It is believed that this reflects an aging, asphyxiated and self-consuming community using its reserves at a maximum rate. The S&T system constructed exhibits a dominance of the public sector that privileged, financially, the hydrocarbon related technological/service industry at the expense of academic research in universities while maintaining agribusiness related service and developmental research at the same level of expenditure throughout the last twenty years of the twentieth century. While the generation - practically from zero - of a modern R&D community in Venezuela, together with higher education, could well be one of the most significant accomplishments of democracy in Venezuela, this remarkable social achievement has been put in peril by neglect and changes in public policies. Downturn of the national S&T system is bound to worsen due to a virtual collapse, on February 4, 2002, of the R&D centre of the nationalized oil industry.
-European scientific communities? (3) How do collaboration patterns vary among humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences? (4) Do papers published through international collaboration have a higher citation impact than papers with no international collaborators
Authors:Miroslava Kačániová, Simona Pavličová, P. Haščík, G. Kociubinski, Vladimíra Kńazovická, M. Sudzina, Janka Sudzinová, and Martina Fikselová
As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees’ digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci,
sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were
. In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera
Authors:Y. González, G. Aragón, A. Benítez, and M. Prieto
Altitudinal gradients involve macroclimatic changes that can affect the diversity of several organisms. We tested the effects of elevation and small-scale variables on the diversity and composition of terricolous communities (lichens and bryophytes) in five páramos in southern Ecuador. The altitudinal range considered (from 2700 to 4000 m a.s.l.) is associated with changes in rainfall, temperature and irradiance. At each páramo, forty 40 x 40 cm2 sample plots were randomly selected in similar areas of vegetation (grass páramo) and conservation status. The presence/absence and cover of lichens and bryophytes were recorded in 200 sample plots. A total of 90 species (46 lichens and 44 bryophytes) were identified. Our results showed that total species richness, lichen and bryophyte richness, Simpson’s inverse and Shannon’s index were related to elevation and slope. Nevertheless, the response to elevation was dependent on the organism considered. Thus, meanwhile lichens had their maximum richness at the highest elevation (3930 m a.s.l.), bryophytes had a maximum peak at middle elevation (3300 m a.s.l.). Species composition also differed significantly among the five páramos, especially in bryophytes. We conclude that differences in the elevation of these páramos and small-scale variables such as slope significantly affect the diversity and composition of terricolous communities.
Authors:F. Saavedra, Mary Mackenzie, R. Pessot, and M. Krauskopf
The size and ageing of the Chilean scientific community was studied using as data the individuals actively engaged in research projects funded by the National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT). Between 1982 and 1991, 4966 individuals participated at least once, either as responsible for the research or as qualified associate in one term of the funding period. From this population, 2765 persons can be considered further committed with scientific research. As for sex, about 30% of the researchers are women. Taking into account all the disciplines, and in addition to the fact that the size of the Chilean scientific community seems to be subcritical, the study reveals that the workforce has been ageing dangerously through the years. The number of young scientists becoming part of the scientific workforce is decreasing. Research in mathematics, physics and chemistry, although qualitatively competitive, relies only on an extremely small group of excellent scientists, situation which is seriously affecting the scientific capacity that the country needs. Biology, although with a higher number of individuals, exhibits a pattern of ageing which will also affects the possibilities to strengthen the scientific demands. The global context in which science develops, leads to a brain drain that Third World countries will have to overcome, implementing public policies to offer the support that young people require to nurture the scientific strength. Indigenous Ph. D. programs demand urgent attention of policy decision makers as well as from research universities which need to offer opportunities to substitute, when existing, their incompetent faculty.
Scholarly research in the field of traditional dance1 has been carried out under the umbrella of cultural studies that have been ignored in all academic circles in the East African states of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Until the late 1960s, there was no distinguished academic institution in the East African region that offered studies in dance. Although traditional dance plays a pivotal role in the execution of the day-to-day activities in many East African communities, less effort has been put into its development in form of research from within the region. Much of its sources today create concern due, but not limited only, to their scarcity, but also to the fact that outsiders from the dance traditions in question mostly author them, thereby creating a perennial outsider-researcher phenomenon. In this paper, I reflect on two traditional dance research experiences; In Transylvania — Romania in October 2013, and a comparatively longer experience of folk dancing in the different rural communities of Uganda in a quest to further understand the practical results of a field research in traditional dance that is rather dominated by dance researchers from outside that dance culture, and the influence of such research results to the bearers of the dance tradition.
This paper demonstrates a possible application of large historical vegetation data sets as reference to reveal natural trends. Phytosociological releves re-sampled after 3–6 decades were used to detect and interpret long-term plant compositional changes of seven rock grassland communities in Hungary. Altogether 151 re-established plots were subject of the study. Data analyses were designed to minimize the negative effects arising from the application of historical information. Principal coordinates analysis was used to discover general compositional changes. With the help of ecological indicator values and species attributes, vegetation state trends were evaluated. Principal coordinates analysis reveals a uniform displacement of plot averages in the ordination space. Ecological indicator values for nitrogen requirement of vascular plants show a significant increase in mesotrophic categories. Occurrences of species typical of rock grasslands decreased significantly. Natural pioneers, disturbance-tolerant and weed species increased in number. Nevertheless, their amount is relatively low and the natural constituents of the communities still dominate, which is a sign of only a minor disturbance. Considering the wide geographical distribution of the sample plots, general changes seem to indicate pressures operating at large scales. These include elevated nitrogen deposition, increased rates of erosion and trampling caused by overpopulated ungulates and more frequent summer drought events. Acidification only occurs in silicate grasslands as calcareous soil types have higher buffering capacities. The global tendency of biotic homogenisation with the increase of common species was also detected over time. The study showed that the use of historical vegetation data enables us to estimate long-term trends in vegetation state.