One of the main characteristics of feminine literary texts from black Africa is the dominant use of the first person as a narrative instance of the story. In this work we will try to show how the homodiegetic narrative of the first texts of women writers offers a series of specific features that refer, on the one hand, to the plural value of the use of the first person in non-fiction texts, and, on the other hand, to the introduction, in fiction texts, of new mechanisms of gender identification as polyphony or dialogic communication between women.
Authors:A. Rivas, J. Deshler, F. Quimby, H. Mohammed, D. Wilson, R. Gonzalez, D. Lein, and P. Bruso
Interdisciplinary synthesis and validity analysis (ISVA), a structured learning approach which integrates learning and communication theories, meta-analytic evaluation methods,
and literature management-related technologies was applied in the context of the 1993–1997 bovine mastitis research literature.
This study investigated whether ISVA could: 1) facilitate the analysis and synthesis of interdisciplinary knowledge claims,
and 2) generate projects or research questions. The bovine mastitis-related literature was conceptualized as composed of microbiological,
immunological, and epidemiological dimensions. Keywords involving these dimensions were searched in theMedline andAgricola databases. A final list of 148 articles were retrieved, analyzed, synthesized into fifteen information sub-sets, and evaluated
for construct, internal, external and statistical validity through an interdisciplinary iterative dialogical process. Validity
threats were re-phrased as new research or educational projects.
Authors:Geert van Campenhout, Tom van Caneghem, and Steve van Uytbergen
In most scientific disciplines, a number of divergent and often highly specialized research areas are examined, which is reflected
in substantial differences among journal scopes. Using the accounting literature as an example, we argue that this diversity
in scopes should be considered when assessing journal influence. Concretely, we examine a citation-based structural influence
measure for a sample of 41 accounting journals. Next, we identify sub-areas in the accounting literature and we explore journal
influence in these sub-areas. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between overall and sub-area
influence. In addition, we show that sub-areas should be identified using a fuzzy clustering procedure.
The beginning and early spread of the world-wide epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been paralleled closely by a rapidly expanding literature concerned with many aspects of the disease. In order to assess the growth of the AIDS literature, a quantitative analysis was conducted focusing on the number of articles, the number of journals contributing, the number of languages used, and the number of countries of origin of publications over time (a bibliometric study). The growth of the popular literature was also studied. Three online databases — MEDLINE, Magazine Index, and the National Newspaper Index — were examined from 24 September 1982 (the date the Centers for Disease Control first adopted the name acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) through the end of 1986 for the popular literature and through the end of 1987 for MEDLINE. A survey of the MEDLINE file showed that by the end of 1987, twenty-five languages were represented in articles from fifty-four countries published in 1170 different journal titles.
The paper is divided in two parts. Part I deals with the novel use of the concept ofentropy H (measured in nepers) of the ageT of references cited in the literature of a specialty, and the derived parameterS=exp(H) (measured in years). We have proposed to useS (orH) as a measure of the obsolescence of the literature. The concept of entropy comes from the Theory of Information (Shannon) where its mathematical properties have been widely studied and are thus available.H andS have been calculated for the log-normal probability density functions (which model the empirical distributions ofT) of some IEEE journals and for the 58-year collection of an electronics journal, and then they have been compared to the total utility function, this latter defined in the literature. Part II recalls and discusses the mean residual life,M(T), and the expected lifeE(T), of a reference of ageT (concepts borrowed from lifetime data analysis). Besides their intrinsic applications, another possible application of these concepts may be in defining quantitatively the age of historical papers. Examples taken from the literatures of the XX and XIX centuries have been reported.
Authors:Claude Robert, Concepción Wilson, Jean-François Gaudy, and Charles-Daniel Arreto
During the 1974–2004 period, the sleep literature had quadrupled (2384 publications in 1974, and 9721 in 2004) while overall
scientific productivity had only doubled. The set of the seven most productive countries (USA, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany,
France, Canada and Italy) in sleep research, and the geographical region distribution remained stable over the three decades.
On the other hand several indicators appeared in the sleep research literature during the 1990s: the increasing productivity
of sleep researchers; the growing number of countries publishing on sleep; the continuous creation of sleep-focused journals;
the scattering of sleep publication among increasingly more scientific journals; the turnover among the leading journals;
and the emergence of new entities such as China, Turkey, and the European Union.
Authors:C. Macias-Chapula, Irma Rodea-Castro, and Nora Narvaez-Berthelemot
This work reports on the preliminary results of a bibliometric analysis of AIDS literature, as produced in or about Latin
America and the Caribbean for the period 1980–1996. Two international and two regional secondary sources were used in order
to obtain comparative analyses regarding for example, comprehensiveness of AIDS literature coverage and local/main frame visibility.
Less than 1000 records were retrieved from each of the databases searched. Leading countries in AIDSLINE were Haiti, Brasil,
Mexico and Puerto Rico. The distribution by year of publication showed a decrease in Haiti records, from 54 in 1983, to 4
in 1995. The rest of the countries either increased or maintained an average production throughout the years. Regional secondary
information sources were less current and comprehensive in the field. Further lines of research are described by the authors.
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) manifests late in the course of disease. The lack of early symptoms leads to delay in diagnosis. Acute pancreatitis (AP) presentation of PC is reported in case series and reports. We report the first case of PC in the Indian literature, who initially presented with AP but in view of weight loss and persistent pain was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of pancreas six months later.
In this section of the journal, the continuous-flow chemistry literature of the preceding months is presented. Included are articles published in the period July–December 2014. Some key examples are highlighted in the form of graphical abstracts. The remaining publications in the field are then listed ordered by journal name, with review articles grouped at the end. This will be the final part in this series.
Authors:A. Chiarucci, G. Bacaro, D. Rocchini, and L. Fattorini
Rarefaction has long represented a powerful tool for detecting species richness and its variation across spatial scales. Some authors recently reintroduced the mathematical expression for calculating sample-based rarefaction curves. While some of them did not claim any advances, others presented this formula as a new analytical solution. We provide evidence about formulations of the sample-based rarefaction formula older than those recently proposed in ecological literature.