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Low viscosity in cereals is important for monogastric livestock feeding. With respect to triticale, knowledge on the variability of its viscosity and its environmental dependence is deplorably low. Six winter varieties with similar earliness at maturity were chosen that covered a large range of potential applied viscosity (PAV) (individual values ranging from 1.8 to 4.9 ml/g). These were cultivated in four locations in Switzerland, at altitudes ranging between 430 and 700 m a.s.l., in 2008 and 2009. The effect of genotype on the PAV was significant and clearly influenced by the location factor. Although variety × location and variety × year interactions were rather low, they were still very important for the PAV compared with other variables such as grain yield and specific grain weight. The PAV expression of one variety seemed not to be susceptible to environmental conditions. The varietal range in viscosity demonstrates a high potential for breeding to raise quality, especially as the viscosity and the grain yield were not correlated. The favourable relationship between the PAV and protein content found in the present study may provide a further incentive to improve this trait to yield high-quality triticale. Existing variability might be used to guide the choice of favourable varieties.

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Drought is one of most important environmental factors inhibiting photosynthesis and decreasing growth and productivity of plants. The sensitivity of crop plants such as wheat to soil drought is particularly serious during reproductive phase is extremely sensitive to plant water status. The aim of this work was to study the effects of drought stress on photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, a-tocopherol and abscisic acid content in six wheat genotypes, two tolerant (Daric and 92 Zhong), two moderately tolerant (Sabalan and DH-2049-3) and two sensitive (Shark and Tevee’s’). Total chlorophyll content, relative water content and chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased after long-time drought stress, that decrease in sensitive genotypes was higher than others. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in flag leaves of our genotypes under drought stress after pollination, that decrease in sensitive genotypes was higher, too. Abscisic acid content, soluble protein content and a-tocopherol increased under drought stress, that increase in tolerant genotypes was higher. There was a significant negative correlation (P < 0.05) between photosynthesis factors and abscisic acid content in flag leaves of all genotypes. It can be concluded that Daric and 92 Zhong had a better photosynthesis factors compared to other genotypes and showed a higher capacity to tolerate drought stress.

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In this study, a new substitution line, 12-5-1, with 42 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. The 12-5-1 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that 12-5-1 was a substitution line 1Mb(1B). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-1 presented high molecular weight glutenin subunits (2 + 12) of CN19 and a new subunit designated as M which apparently originated from parent Ae. biuncialis, and absent 7 + 8 subunits. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness and mixing time of 12-5-1 were signifiantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1Mb-specifi polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1026, TNAC1041, TNAC1-02 and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new substitution line 1Mb(1B) 12-5-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end product quality and resistance to disease.

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Research of cereal glycoproteins is important for understanding of their functional properties, their role during technological processing of cereals and it can serve as a valuable tool for the detection of cereal allergens. The main intention of this study was the screening of profile of water-soluble glycoproteins present in barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat durum (Triticum durum) and spelt (Triticum spelta). Lectin monolithic HPLC column was used for rapid and effective enrichment of glycoprotein fractions. Captured glycoproteins were electrophoretically separated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Presented procedure resulted in identification of a group of N-glycoprotein candidates with affinity to lectin concanavalin A (ConA). Such molecules could have, among others, an allergenic potential. Majority of captured low-molecular-weight glycoproteins belong to alpha amylase/trypsin inhibitors family. However, most of the higher-molecular-weight proteins identified in lectin bound fractions have not been described as glycoproteins yet. Obtained results improved the knowledge about (glyco)protein content in cereal grain. The connection of lectin HPLC-GE-MS was proved as a convenient strategy for identification of cereal glycoproteins. Suggested method is universal and can be applied for various cereals and food-stuffs.

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The study included Polish cultivars and lines of naked types of Avena sativa L. and husked oat (Avena sativa L.). The objective of work was to gain knowledge of oats adequate for functional food production. Statistically significant differences among the cultivars studied were demonstrated in the content of the chemical components under determination. It was found that in certain cultivars the protein content exceeded the level of 20% d.m. in the 3-year study period. High levels of protein in those cultivars make them especially suitable for food production. It was demonstrated that the naked oat cultivars and lines were characterized by a higher fat content compared to the husked oat forms. The average fat content in the naked cultivars varied from 7.61% d.m. to 8.74% d.m., while the husked oat forms had fat content from 5.54% d.m. to 7.23% d.m. Oat fat of the cultivars and lines studied contained ca. 80% unsaturated fatty acids, with the largest amounts of linoleic acid (C18:2) and oleic acid (C18:1 cis). Approximately one half of the unsaturated fatty acids in the samples studied were essential fatty acids. The study indicates a necessity of further breeding research aimed at the identification of cultivars especially suited for food applications.

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Lanzou Alkaline Stretched Noodles (LASN) was a traditional staple food in northwest China for nearly 90 years. LASN specialty wheat breeding has become an important target since 1990s. In order to discover the LASN specialty wheat quality requirement for allelic variations at Glu-3 of northwest China spring wheats. Two northwest China spring wheat cultivars and 39 elite F6 breeding lines were adopted to determine the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) composition by one step one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) basing on the protocol of Singh et al. (1991). The results showed that Glu-A3d and Glu-B3g were correlated to high protein content, high volume of SDS-sediment and super dough strength (W). While Glu-A3a was bad to dry gluten content and SDS-sediment as well as dough properties such as dough strength (W) and dough tenacity (P). Moreover, Glu-B3j has not significant influence on flour quality, but it has the negative effect on dough strength (W) and dough extensibility (L). As for LASN quality, Glu-A3d and Glu-B3g were beneficial alleles and Glu-A3a was unbeneficial alleles for LASN quality.

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Lanzhou Alkaline Stretched Noodles (LASN) has introduced by Meng et al. in previous research paper (2007). In order to discover the LASN specialty wheat quality requirement for allelic variations at Glu-1 of northwest China spring wheats, 2 northwest China spring wheat cultivars and 39 elite F6 breeding lines were adopted to determine the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition by one step one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) based on the protocol of Singh et al. (1991). The results showed that the wheat quality and LASN quality were characterised by Glu-1 alleles significantly. Glu-A1 /1 correlated to high protein content and better extensibility (L) than other allelic variations. Glu-A1 /1, Glu-B1 /17+18 and Glu-D1 /5+10 were beneficial to dough strength (W), meanwhile Glu-A1 /2* and Glu-D1 /5+10 were good to dough tenacity (P). Glu-D1 /5+10 strongly correlated to high volume of SDS-sediment significantly. Allelic variations at Glu-A1 / (1, 2*), Glu-B1 /17+18 and Glu-D1 /5+10 were beneficial alleles for wheat quality as well as LASN quality. However, Glu-A1 /null and Glu-D1 /2+12 were inferior alleles for wheat quality and LASN quality.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.T. Xue, A. Gianinetti, R. Wang, Z.J. Zhan, J. Yan, Y. Jiang, T. Fahima, G. Zhao, and J.P. Cheng

Crop seeds are the main staples in human diet, especially in undeveloped countries. In any case, the diet needs to be rich not only in macro-nutrients like carbohydrates and protein, but also in micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, both the macro- and micro-nutrients presented in seeds largely vary in consequence of field and environment conditions. In this research, 60 lines of a barley RILs population segregating for the SSR marker Hvm74, which is genetically linked to the GPC (grain protein content) locus (HvNAM-1), were studied in 4 environments (two growing years and two field managements) by carrying out a comprehensive profile of seed macro- (starch, total nitrogen and total soluble protein) and micro-nutrients (phytate, phenolics, flavonoids, Pi, Zn and Fe). Under field conditions, all the components were largely affected by the environment, but TN (total nitrogen) exhibited high genotype contribution, while micro-nutrients displayed higher genotype × environments interactions (GEI) than macro-nutrients. In order to approach the effects of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) balance on other seed components, two C/N ratios were calculated: C/TN (CNR1) and C/TSP (CNR2). CNR2 exhibited stronger negative correlations with all micro-nutrients. Hence, the significant GEI and its negative relationships with CNR2 highlighted the different characters of micro-nutrients in barley seeds.

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Abstract  

The guava seed protein isolate (PI) was obtained from the protein precipitation belonging to the class of the gluteline (Ip 4.5). The conditions for the preparation of the PI were determined by both the solubility curve and simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA): pH 11.5, absence of NaCl and whiteners and T=(253)C. Under these conditions a yield of 77.00.4%, protein content of 94.20.3, ashes 0.500.05% and thermal stability, T=200C, were obtained. The TG-DTA curves and the PI emulsification capacity study showed the presence of hydrophobic microdomains at pH 11.5 and 3.0 suggesting a random coil protein conformation and, to pH 10.0, an open protein conformation. The capacity of emulsification (CE), in the absence of NaCl, was verified for: 1 – pH 3.0 and 8.5, using the IP extracted at pH 10.0 and 11.5, CE≥3435 g of emulsified oil/g of protein; 2 – pH 6.60 just for the PI obtained at pH 11.5, CE≥1408 g of emulsified oil/g of protein.

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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals (every 7 and every 14 days) and fertilizers (farmyard manure, pellet granules and urea) on the composition of safflower seed and its oil stability. Fertilizers have a significant effect on the carbohydrate, fat, ash and protein contents of safflower seed oil. Pellet granules slightly increased the carbohydrate content, while farmyard manure increased the fat and oil contents of safflower seed oil. On the other hand, urea and farmyard manure increased the fibre content compared with pellets, which slightly decreased it. Irrigation every 7 days increased the protein content. Farmyard manure significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mineral content (iron, potassium and calcium). The use of FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the period of storage significantly (P < 0.05) affects oil stability. The peak intensities (absorbencies) recorded for oil stored at zero time changed after storage for 1, 2 and 3 days, indicating a clear effect of storage time on the oil, and the bands 3008, 2923, 2854, 1747, 1654, 1463, 1377, 1238, 1163, 1099 and 723 exhibited a clear decrease in the intensity of the individual group vibrations, indicating a decrease in oil stability.

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