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Diverting household waste from landfill had become a must for EU member states. The mechanical and biological treatment of household wastes is one of the key method to reach this goal. The object of the mechanical handling is to separate the recyclable fraction and transform the non-recyclable part into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) for energetic use and produce fraction for biological treatment. Our challenge to identify the ideal technology for RDF production for the North-Balaton Regional Waste Management System, by studying the existing technologies, and emerging needs from the growing market especially for Cement Industry and pyrolitic technologies.

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Abstract  

Phenol is industrially produced by the Hock process, in which cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is decomposed with sulfuric acid to obtain equimolar amounts of phenol and acetone. Use of the liquid acid requires subsequent neutralization and purification of the phenol at substantial cost, and a waste stream generation that could be avoided if an effective solid acid catalyst could be used. Modified clays exhibit attractive properties as solid acids. Acid treatment produces an increase in surface area and acidity. The present study was undertaken to modify bentonite clay by treatment with hydrochloric acid for the production of phenol and acetone via the decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide. The effects of various parameters such as acid activation, catalyst weight, concentration of CHP, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were studied. The results indicate that the acid-modified bentonite catalyst may be used instead of sulfuric acid for selective decomposition of CHP into phenol and acetone.

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In this article new result of international researches focused on the hydraulic behavior of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SF-CW-s) for wastewater treatment are shown. The results presented below are focused on the tracer experiments to simulate transport processes, the effect of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and organic substances loads, and the effect of macrophytes, meteorological conditions. The Hungarian experiences of constructed wetlands are compared to that of international ones and the main differences are discussed. The main considerations of comparison are: specific load of organic substances, specific load of TSS, specific hydraulic load, the type of soil, the pre-treatment systems, etc. The conclusion of this comparison is the main directions of development of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in Hungary.

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Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation temperature and time were investigated on broccoli florets at different blanching treatments. In addition, retention of nutritional components,which reduced POD and LOX activities, was compared. LOX inactivation required 14 min at 70 °C, 6 min at 80 °C, 11/2 min at 90 °C, 1 min at 100 °C water blanching and 1 min for steam blanching, 2 min in microwave without water and 6 min with microwave and water. The highest nutritional content of broccoli was evaluated in microwave blanching without water by comparison to all treatments. The decline of nitrate and nitrite value of broccoli was higher under longer time blanching than under higher temperature blanching.

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The aim of the study was to assay by PCR screening method whether the processing and the thermal stress have any influence on the feasibility of the detection of genetically modified DNA in different kinds of processed meat products such as sausages, liver cans, ready-to-eat hamburgers. The model meat products have been prepared with soybean meal spiked with RR (Roundup Ready) soybean meal in 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The samples were prepared under industrial circumstances. The assay was based on the detection of the specific part of the 35S promoter and the NOS terminator sequences. The modified PCR method was shown to be suitable for screening of GMOs in raw and also in moderately and highly processed meat samples when extreme heat treatment and pressure were used for the preparation of meat products. Half a percent RR soy contamination could be detected even if the food products underwent high temperature treatment.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Szekér, J. Beczner, A. Halász, Á. Mayer, J.M. Rezessy-Szabó, and P. Gálfi

The adhesion of twenty-six Lactobacillusstrains to two intestinal cell lines (Caco-2P and IEC-18) and 21 Bifidobacteriumstrains to Caco-2P cells was investigated. Non-specific adherence was determined on the surface of culture plates. The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) on epithelial cells, and bacterial adhesion were investigated by Na-n-butyrate treatment. The adherence of LAB and bifidobacteria greatly varied in a strain-dependent manner. The adherence of LAB was better to IEC-18 cells than to Caco-2P cells, and bifidobacteria adhered better to Caco-2P cells than the LAB. Some strains adhered well or even better to the background than to the cells, which queries the specificity of adhesion of these strains. Na-n-butyrate treatment stimulated the differentiation of IEC-18 cells and therefore increased the number of adherent bacteria, probably because only the cell surface increased not the number of epitopes.

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The measurements done on magnetic bearings usually give higher losses than have been expected through the simulations. One of the reasons for the difference might be that the stresses introduced by mechanical or thermal treatments are not taken into account when a model is developed. In this paper, a core loss model of the magnetic bearings, taking the stresses in the laminations of the rotor into account is proposed. The model is used in the finite element analysis of radial magnetic bearings.

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For colouring of foods anthocyanins are widely used, which are present in great quantity in black elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Experiments were done to study the anthocyanin content of several varieties and candidates, from which the highest value was found in the Haschberg cultivar. Further experiments were performed with this cultivar to study the anthocyanin stability ofS. nigraunder different circumstances (heat-treatment at various pH and temperatures). Our results revealed that anthocyanins react sensitively to temperature and pH increase.

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Nanopages
Authors: E. Zsolt Horváth, A. Antal Koós, Krisztián Kertész, Zofia Vértesy, György Molnár, Mária Ádám, Csaba Dücső, József Gyulai, and P. László Biró

Gas sensing properties of different carbon nanotube (mostly multiwall, MWCNT) mats, based on electrical resistance measurement were investigated in a simple arrangement and found that the sensitivity for different gases or vapors highly depends on the pre-treatment and functionalization of nanotubes. The selectivity of the sensing was demonstrated by building a vapor recognition system based on an array of multitube sensors made of differently functionalized MWCNTs.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Y. Hassan, L. Mészáros, A. Simon, E. Tuboly, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, and J. Farkas

The total viable cell count of bacteria in vacuum-packaged chilled minced beef has been decreased equally, by approx. two log-cycles, as an effect of 1.5-2.0 kGy gamma radiation or 200-300 MPa high hydrostatic pressure (UHP) treatment for 20 min. Coliform bacteria could be eliminated to non-detectable levels by the same treatments. The shelf-life of both untreated and non-thermally pasteurised samples were limited mainly by growth of lactic acid bacteria. At about equal bactericidal effect, more drastic changes of texture and colour occurred in UHP-pasteurized minced beef samples than in the radiation-pasteurized ones. Whereas radiation pasteurisation caused minimal changes in appearance, texture and DSC-thermograms of minced beef, UHP-pasteurisation of the raw samples proved to be strongly discolouring by denaturing the muscle pigments and causing extensive denaturation of the myofibrillar proteins. The water holding capacity of irradiated samples decreased, while that of high pressure treated ones increased as compared to the untreated control. Near infrared spectrometry and electronic nose measurements gave promising results to make distinctions non-destructively on changes of various physical-chemical changes and quality parameters as a function of pasteurising treatments and/or storage.

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