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Our research target was to utilise vine-branch, existing in huge amounts, for energetic purposes. During our experiments, microwave (MW) treatments of different powers (400–1600 W), pressures (1–5 bar), temperatures (120–180 °C), and treatment times (3–30 min) were applied to change the physical condition of vine-branch. After MW, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used (85–100 h, 37 °C). In addition, beside MW, comparisons were made regarding various treatment methods: untreated (UTE), cooking plate (CP), and autoclave (AC), to determine to what extent they affect the final glucose yield. This yield can even further be increased by MW pre-treatment (50 W, 3–30 min, 40 °C) of the enzyme used during the hydrolysis, which reinforces the argument that enzyme activity can be increased by irradiation. A difference of 22.1% was detected among the glucose yield values in untreated and treated enzyme processes.

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This study was to examine how encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 combined with pasteurized longan juice colonized a digestive system by using a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. The results showed that encapsulated L. casei 01 and longan juice stimulated an increase of colon lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, lactic acid and various short-chain fatty acids for which acetate was substantially present in both colons followed by propionate and butyrate. On the contrary, the treatments triggered off the reduction of faecal coliforms, clostridia, and total anaerobes. To sum up, the denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis supported that treatment conditions stimulated diversities of bacteria communities occurring in both colons.

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Diverting household waste from landfill had become a must for EU member states. The mechanical and biological treatment of household wastes is one of the key method to reach this goal. The object of the mechanical handling is to separate the recyclable fraction and transform the non-recyclable part into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) for energetic use and produce fraction for biological treatment. Our challenge to identify the ideal technology for RDF production for the North-Balaton Regional Waste Management System, by studying the existing technologies, and emerging needs from the growing market especially for Cement Industry and pyrolitic technologies.

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In this article new result of international researches focused on the hydraulic behavior of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SF-CW-s) for wastewater treatment are shown. The results presented below are focused on the tracer experiments to simulate transport processes, the effect of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and organic substances loads, and the effect of macrophytes, meteorological conditions. The Hungarian experiences of constructed wetlands are compared to that of international ones and the main differences are discussed. The main considerations of comparison are: specific load of organic substances, specific load of TSS, specific hydraulic load, the type of soil, the pre-treatment systems, etc. The conclusion of this comparison is the main directions of development of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in Hungary.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Szekér, J. Beczner, A. Halász, Á. Mayer, J.M. Rezessy-Szabó, and P. Gálfi

The adhesion of twenty-six Lactobacillusstrains to two intestinal cell lines (Caco-2P and IEC-18) and 21 Bifidobacteriumstrains to Caco-2P cells was investigated. Non-specific adherence was determined on the surface of culture plates. The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) on epithelial cells, and bacterial adhesion were investigated by Na-n-butyrate treatment. The adherence of LAB and bifidobacteria greatly varied in a strain-dependent manner. The adherence of LAB was better to IEC-18 cells than to Caco-2P cells, and bifidobacteria adhered better to Caco-2P cells than the LAB. Some strains adhered well or even better to the background than to the cells, which queries the specificity of adhesion of these strains. Na-n-butyrate treatment stimulated the differentiation of IEC-18 cells and therefore increased the number of adherent bacteria, probably because only the cell surface increased not the number of epitopes.

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The aim of the study was to assay by PCR screening method whether the processing and the thermal stress have any influence on the feasibility of the detection of genetically modified DNA in different kinds of processed meat products such as sausages, liver cans, ready-to-eat hamburgers. The model meat products have been prepared with soybean meal spiked with RR (Roundup Ready) soybean meal in 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The samples were prepared under industrial circumstances. The assay was based on the detection of the specific part of the 35S promoter and the NOS terminator sequences. The modified PCR method was shown to be suitable for screening of GMOs in raw and also in moderately and highly processed meat samples when extreme heat treatment and pressure were used for the preparation of meat products. Half a percent RR soy contamination could be detected even if the food products underwent high temperature treatment.

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Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation temperature and time were investigated on broccoli florets at different blanching treatments. In addition, retention of nutritional components,which reduced POD and LOX activities, was compared. LOX inactivation required 14 min at 70 °C, 6 min at 80 °C, 11/2 min at 90 °C, 1 min at 100 °C water blanching and 1 min for steam blanching, 2 min in microwave without water and 6 min with microwave and water. The highest nutritional content of broccoli was evaluated in microwave blanching without water by comparison to all treatments. The decline of nitrate and nitrite value of broccoli was higher under longer time blanching than under higher temperature blanching.

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The measurements done on magnetic bearings usually give higher losses than have been expected through the simulations. One of the reasons for the difference might be that the stresses introduced by mechanical or thermal treatments are not taken into account when a model is developed. In this paper, a core loss model of the magnetic bearings, taking the stresses in the laminations of the rotor into account is proposed. The model is used in the finite element analysis of radial magnetic bearings.

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Nanopages
Authors: E. Zsolt Horváth, A. Antal Koós, Krisztián Kertész, Zofia Vértesy, György Molnár, Mária Ádám, Csaba Dücső, József Gyulai, and P. László Biró

Gas sensing properties of different carbon nanotube (mostly multiwall, MWCNT) mats, based on electrical resistance measurement were investigated in a simple arrangement and found that the sensitivity for different gases or vapors highly depends on the pre-treatment and functionalization of nanotubes. The selectivity of the sensing was demonstrated by building a vapor recognition system based on an array of multitube sensors made of differently functionalized MWCNTs.

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For colouring of foods anthocyanins are widely used, which are present in great quantity in black elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Experiments were done to study the anthocyanin content of several varieties and candidates, from which the highest value was found in the Haschberg cultivar. Further experiments were performed with this cultivar to study the anthocyanin stability ofS. nigraunder different circumstances (heat-treatment at various pH and temperatures). Our results revealed that anthocyanins react sensitively to temperature and pH increase.

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