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Eight Lactobacillus, five Saccharomyces and one Streptococcus strains were chosen to perform mono and mixed culture fermentations, focusing on interaction investigation via agar diffusion and analysis of cell growth kinetics, both serving as selection criteria. Mixed culture fermentations with four lactic acid bacteria (Lb. bulgaricus, Lb. paracasei SF1, Lb. plantarum 2142, and Lb. casei Shirota) and four yeast strains (S. cerevisiae W66, S. cerevisiae WS34/70, S. cerevisiae W120, and S. carlsbergensis 843) were performed in wort with initial cell ratio of 1:1. It was determined that during fermentations, cell concentration of lactic acid bacteria exceeded that of yeasts by one order of magnitude. Three strain combinations (S. carlsbergensis with Lb. bulgaricus, Lb. 2142, and Lb. Shirota) were chosen for further fermentations. Basic behaviour of them in wort was studied in mono culture, which helped to determine interaction type between bacteria and yeast in mixed culture. It resulted in higher Lactobacillus cell concentration in mono cultural than in mixed culture fermentation, which refers to competition. Cell ratio was changed to 1:10 (lactobacilli:yeasts), to favour growth of yeast and avoid lower pH. Despite the higher initial concentration of yeast, results turned in favour of lactobacillus already at the 24th hour.

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The microbiological spoilage of foods depends on the initial microbiological contamination and some factors which influence the growth of microorganisms. Therefore, reducing the initial cell count is necessary for both extending shelf-life and improving food safety. Physical, chemical and combined treatments serve this purpose. In these experiments, the effect of trisodium phosphate dipping (0-15% solutions) was studied. Chicken wings were used, which after dipping (1 min) in the solution were packed in PE-PA-PE pouches and stored at 4 °C. Aerobic mesophilic (Nutrient Agar, Merck), pseudomonad (Pseudomonas Selective Agar, Oxoid), and Enterobacteriaceae counts (VRBD Agar, Merck) were determined by Spiral Plate Technique at 30 °C incubation temperature. Effect of 3.8, 5.7, 7.6% trisodium phosphate dipping solutions was studied as a function of storage time. Immediately after treatment, total colony count was reduced by maximum 1.5 log cycles. Pseudomonads were the most sensitive. One day after treatment with these low concentration solutions, the colony count was reduced by 2 log cycles. Na3PO4concentration higherthan 7.6% practically did not result in higher effectivity. The growth rate and maximum cell count of surviving fraction were estimated as a function of trisodium phosphate concentration. It can be concluded from fitted survival curves that immediately after treatment the initial viable cell count was reduced and the critical spoilage level (107g-1) has been reached 2-3 days later than in case of the untreated samples, i.e. the shelf-life was extended.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Szentmihályi, M. Szilágyi, J. Balla, L. Ujhelyi, and A. Blázovics

Magnesium participates in numerous enzymatic reactions in the human body and it has essential role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system. Since several magnesium compounds have been applied in the food and pharmaceutical industry, our purpose was to investigate the antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity of some magnesium compounds in vitro. The antioxidant/prooxidant effect of inorganic salts (e.g. MgCl2) and organic complexes (e.g. Mg-gluconate) was determined with chemiluminometric method (H2O2/•OH-microperoxidase-luminol) and heme mediated LDL oxidation (LDL-heme-H2O2 ) in vitro. It has been stated that the chemiluminescence method and LDL (low density lipoprotein) oxidation measurement is applicable in the presence of magnesium salts and complexes. Most of the compounds do not generate free radicals and the antioxidant/prooxidant effect depends on the quality of the ligand and the concentration. In the concentration range used, some representatives of the magnesium compounds (MgO, Mg-gluconate, Mg-polygalacturonate) investigated showed radical generating activity measured with chemiluminescence method, whereas the LDL oxidation has not been affected. Magnesium citrate and malate proved to be antioxidants measured with the chemiluminescence method and they slightly accelerate the LDL oxidation in the system and in the concentration applied. In vitro some of the ligands of magnesium compounds showed antioxidant activities.

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Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen small tree or shrub, distributed throughout the Mediterranean area from Portugal to Israel and North Africa. J. phoenicea has been used for centuries in traditional medicine and its berries are widely used in flavours, perfumes, and to aromatize alcoholic beverages.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Juniperus phoenicea berries from Jordan.The essential oils of the berries were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oils against dermatophytes, yeasts and Aspergillus species.The essential oils were characterized by high percentage of α-pinene (75.5 and 84.2%), which distinguish them from oils from other countries where α-pinene is usually present in lower percentages. Essential oils exhibited high antifungal activity against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values ranging from 0.32–2.5 μl ml−1.These results support that essential oils from J. phoenicea berries may be useful in the treatment of dermatophytosis. Further studies should be stimulated in order to evaluate toxicity and optimal concentrations for clinical applications.

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Total polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant properties were investigated in five lager and three dark beers. The average concentration of total polyphenols in lager and dark beers was 376 and 473 mg l -1, respectively. All samples exhibited strong hydrogen-donating property and reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner. Beers also showed copper(II)-chelating ability and antioxidant property in Randox TAS measurement. The differences of polyphenol content and antioxidant characteristics between lager and dark beers were statistically not different. Antioxidant properties were dependent on the total polyphenol content of beers. The concentration of polyphenols and antioxidant properties except for chelating ability of beers measured in the same in vitro test system was very similar to those characteristics of white wine, while the extent of chelating ability of beers showed similarity to that of red wines. Studies evaluating the relative benefits of wine versus beer versus spirits suggest that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. Although beers have antioxidant capacity like white wines with having half the alcoholic content of wines, beers should be good sources of antioxidant polyphenols, and moderate consumption as a part of a well-balanced diet cannot be criticised either medically or socially and may have a beneficial effect on reducing oxidative disorders.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Croitoru, I. Fülöp, M. Ajtay, G. Dudutz, O. Crăciun, and M. Dogaru

To date, monosodium glutamate is the most used flavour enhancing food additive. Because high levels of glutamate are toxic to brain concerns appeared regarding the safe use of glutamate and there is a 10 g kg −1 concentration limit in foodstuff. A simple HPLC-UV method, based on a derivatization procedure with o -phthaldialdehyde, was developed for determination of glutamate in meat products, soup bases and vegetable concentrates. Even if our method is less sensitive than the HPLC-fluorescence ones widely available, it is able to measure amounts at least 200 times smaller than the maximum allowed one, has good reproducibility (CV under 2% for intraday and under 3% for interday determinations), linearity and accuracy. Less expensive HPLC systems are required and the formed derivative is very stable (at least 1 week), good separation is obtained with the less expensive 5 μm particle C 18 columns and methanol as organic phase. Concentration of free glutamate ranged between 0.14 g kg −1 in sausage without added glutamate to as high as 2.16 g kg −1 in a pork sausage. Concentration in vegetable mixes and soup bases were between 80–120 g kg −1 .

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The content of potentially antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiallergic flavonoid aglycons, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin of 45 fruits were determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Fresh and dried fruits were purchased in the local markets in Budapest at a period of their most frequent consumption. Total flavonoid content of fruits varied between 0–1000 mg kg –1, the average concentration was about 30 mg kg –1 fresh weight. Quercetin could be detected in most fruits, namely in apples, pear, plums, sweet and sour cherry and berries between 10–53 mg kg –1. Luteolin at a concentration of 20 mg kg –1 was found in melons, apples, kiwi and lemon. Myricetin was in detectable amount in redcurrant, and at very high concentration in some berry fruits (mulberry 453 mg kg –1, raspberry 540 mg kg –1, blackberry 636 mg kg –1, strawberry 994 mg kg –1), and in walnut (4565 mg kg –1). Kaempferol and apigenin were not found in the fruits investigated. None of the five flavonoids was found in some variety of grapes, in peach, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit and tangerine, in nuts such as almond, pistachio, nuts, and in dried fruits such as raisin, date, fig and prunes. These data provide a basis for the evaluation of the average daily intake of Hungarian population and for an epidemiological evaluation of health-promoting effects of flavonoids. __

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The oral administration of hyaluronic acid has been shown to improve skin health. This study aimed at utilizing ultrasound treatment to enhance the production of hyaluronic acid by lactobacilli. Among the 16 strains of lactobacilli screened, a higher production of hyaluronic acid (P<0.05) was observed from seven strains namely, Lactobacillus casei BT 2113, Lactobacillus casei BT 1268, Lactobacillus casei BT 8633, Lactobacillus casei FTDC 8033, Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1231, Lactobacillus gasseri FTDC 8131 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus FTDC 8313. Upon ultrasonic treatment, hyaluronic acid concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) in all the seven strains studied. The use of ultrasonication at 100% amplitude increased the hyaluronic acid content (P<0.05) up to 51.6 % with concentrations ranging from 0.262 mg ml−1 to 0.385 mg ml−1, while an amplitude of 20% yielded a lower increase ranging from 0.227 mg ml−1 to 0.310 mg ml−1. Increasing duration of ultrasonic treatment (from 1 min to 3 min) also significantly (P<0.05) improved the concentration of hyaluronic acid in some strains. Our data demonstrated that a sub-lethal physical treatment, such as ultrasonication, can be applied to increase the membrane permeability of lactobacilli cells and subsequently increase the release of bioactive metabolites.

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The compounds of interest in the present study were the natural compounds rutin and quercetin, which are strong antioxidants and have beneficial effects on human health (Myake & Shibamoto, 1997). They are present in everyday foods and beverages and in this way they are used as an integral part of human diet. Therefore, it seemed interesting to investigate the influence of these valuable natural compounds on corrosion processes of aluminium, an ambalage material often used in food industry (Jovanovic et al., 1994). All the investigations were performed in 3% solution of sodium chloride, in aqueous rutin and quercetin solutions as well as in rutin and quercetin solutions in 3% sodium chloride solution. Concentrations of rutin and quercetin solutions used ranged from 10-2 to 10-5 mol dm-3, and investigations involved electrochemical methods. The results obtained showed that rutin and quercetin previously dissolved in 0.1 M NaOH and added to the 3% sodium chloride solution at concentrations of 10-4 and 10-5 mol dm-3 acted as aluminium corrosion inhibitors, while at higher concentrations (10-2 and 10-3 mol dm-3) their effects were opposite. The efficiency of the corrosion inhibition of aluminium by rutin and quercetin solutions was the result of forming protective film on the metal surface. Therefore, the diluted rutin and quercetin solutions could be used as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium.

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/4 807 812 Dragun Z., Roje V., Mikac N., Raspor B. Preliminary assessment of total dissolved trace metal concentrations in Sava River water, Environmental Monitoring and

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