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Prolamin content of buckwheat flour and processed foods was 24.2–42.1 mg/kg dry material measured by ELISA. According to in vitro results buckwheat is suitable for use in coeliac diet, although it contains some antinutritive materials, protease inhibitors and tannin. The allergenic properties of buckwheat are poorly understood. In our investigation intensity of the 24 kD protein band of buckwheat, of which allergenic activity is known has decreased, and 30–35 kD protein associations have been formed after heat treatment. Immunochemical reaction of buckwheat proteins were studied with blood specimens of coeliac and healthy persons.

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Municipal solid waste management is a basic service that, in Finland, consists of collection, transportation and treatment systems provided by municipalities, waste management companies and producer responsibility organizations. The amount of municipal solid waste in Finland has risen quite steadily for many decades. In 2012, the recovery rate of municipal solid waste as material or energy was 67%. The Finnish Waste Act has been updated in 2012, with the key goal to further reduce waste amounts and progress recycling. The paper describes the best practices in strategic waste management planning and describes the organization of municipal solid waste in city of Oulu, Finland.

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Quantification of red pigment content of fruits using destructive techniques is expensive and it enables only the analysis of batches but not of individual items. This study examined the feasibility of using non-destructive, spectrophotometric method to predict one of the most valuable internal quality indices, lycopene, in individual tomato fruits. An open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation and potassium supplementation on the yield and lycopene content of processed tomato fruit. Three different treatments (regularly irrigated RI, irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest CO, and rainfed RF unirrigated control) and two different potassium fertilisations (P) were applied. Regular irrigation significantly decreased the lycopene content of tomato fruits. The CO treatment resulted in the highest total lycopene without potassium supplementation. Potassium supplementation, given at the time before fruit maturity, significantly increased the lycopene concentration of cultivar Brigade F1, independently of irrigation. The closest correlation was at 700 nm R2=0.38 and R2=0.45, between reflectance and the (all-E)-lycopene and the (9Z)+(13Z)-lycopene isomers, respectively.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Váli, H. Fébel, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, É. Sárdi, A. Lugasi, K. Szentmihályi, and A. Blázovics

Dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may have beneficial effect on survival of the patients. Table beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) contains bioactive agents, which have a wide range of different physiologic effects. These agents have beneficial antioxidant properties. The aim in the present study was to determine the gut protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power and free SH-group concentracion were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry in duodenum and plasma. Lyophilized table beet increased significantly the free radical scavenging property of the plasma measured by chemiluminometry. Other antioxidant parameters of the plasma increased in rats fed table beet diet, and change in reducing power was significant. Beneficial effect of the treatment was found in changes of total scavenger capacity of the duodenum during ischaemia-reperfusion injury. H-donating ability and reducing power of the gut decreased in the table beet-fed group during ischaemia-reperfusion compared to normal group with ischaemia-reperfusion. Based on these data, it can be concluded that table beet can protect the entire body from the oxidative damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion of the liver, but the effect of table beet treatment on gut mucosa needs further investigation.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova, M. Eftimov, R. Tashev, L. Yankova, I. Belcheva, and S. Belcheva

The main bioactive substances in Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) are polyphenols (flavonoids, procyanidins, and phenolic acids). A great number of polyphenols are able to traverse the blood-brain barrier. In recent years more attention is drawn to the ability of these substances to influence central nervous system functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AMFJ on exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity in male Wistar rats. AMFJ was administered orally for 7, 14, 21, and 30 days at three increasing doses (2.5, 5, and 10 ml kg−1). The changes in exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity were recorded in an Opto Varimex apparatus. It was found that the low doses of AMFJ (2.5 and 5 ml kg−1) for all treatment periods did not significantly affect exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity of rats compared to the saline-treated controls. AMFJ at the highest dose of 10 ml kg−1 had no significant effect on exploration and locomotion for the treatment periods of 7 and 14 days, while for the periods of 21 and 30 days it significantly decreased the number of horizontal and vertical movements, which might be the result of a sedative effect. At all the doses and testing periods, AMFJ did not disturb the progressive decrease in motor behaviour, suggesting habituation.

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The present study was performed to investigate the effect of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment on defence activation in grape berries and to analyse its cellular mechanism. The results implied that BABA treatment at an effective concentration of 20 mM significantly inhibited gray mould rot caused by Botrytis cinerea in grape berries by inducing resistance. Accordingly, 20 mM BABA triggered a priming defence in grape suspension cells, since only the BABA-treated cells exhibited an accelerated ability for augmenting defence responses upon the pathogen inoculation. The primed cellular reactions were related to an early H2O2 burst, prompt accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins and activation of PR genes. Thus, we assume that 20 mM BABA can induce resistance to B. cinerea infection in intact grape berries perhaps via intercellular priming defence. Moreover, the BABA-induced priming defence is verified, because no negative effects on cell growth, anthocyanin synthesis, and quality impairment in either grape cells or intact berries were observed under low pathogenic pressure.

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus to bind patulin (PAT) in the buffer solution and apple juice. The binding of L. rhamnosus to PAT was reversible, which improved the stability of the bacterial complex. The ability to bind PAT can be enhanced with the inactivation of the strain by high temperature and acid treatment. Acid-treated bacteria had the highest PAT binding rate of 72.73±1.05%. The binding rates of acid and high temperature (121 °C) treatments were increased by 21.37% and 19.15%, respectively. L. rhamnosus showed the best detoxification ability to PAT at 37 °C, where the binding rate reached 50.9±1.03%. When the dose of inactivated bacteria powder was 0.02 g ml−1, the minimum concentration of PAT in apple juice was 0.37 µg ml−1. The addition of the L. rhamnosus inactivated powder did not affect the quality of the juice product and effectively bound the PAT in apple juice.

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Studies performed so far on different human carcinoma cell lines, as well as numerous case-control and epidemiological studies have given proof to the protective effects of selenium against cancer. However, the anticancer properties of selenium are site-specific. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of selenium against CaCo2 human colon carcinoma cells, and SW620 lymph node metastasis of colon carcinoma cell line. Three selenium compounds, seleno-DL-cystine (SeC), seleno-L-methionine (SeM) and sodium selenite were used. Initial number of cells was 210 4 and the cells were incubated for 72 h with the aforementioned Se compounds at 10, 100 and 1000 µmol Se concentrations. Cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT cell survival assay. In the present study, decreased viabilities of both CaCo2 and SW620 cells were established following the treatment with selenite, SeC, and SeM. At 10 µmol Se levels all three chemical forms exerted a more or less anticipated cytotoxic effect with viability decreases ranging from 22 to 37%. However, the other two levels of 100 and 1000 µmol Se did not exhibit an expected proportional rise in cytotoxic effect compared to 10 µmol, which warrants further research on the reasons for increased resistance of these cells. Cell morphology also indicates that investigated Se forms induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines. The results confirm the applicability of Se in the prevention and treatment of the investigated cancer sites.

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This work aims to develop a freeze-dried milk powder with low lactose content and evaluate the percentage composition, microbiological analysis, and the soy lecithin and temperature effect on the solubility, dispersibility, and wettability of the final product. According to the results, treatments with and without hydrolysis showed significant differences in moisture (3.96% and 2.63%), ash (8.92% and 10.0%), lactose (1.57% and 61.46%), and glucose (33.79% and 0.81%) contents. In both treatments, no microbiological contaminant was observed. For high values of solubility, the most appropriate combination was lecithin 0.6% at 80 ºC, for dispersibility was lecithin 0.6% at 94 ºC, and for wettability was lecithin 0.65% at 90 ºC. Based on the results, freeze-dried milk powder with low lactose content can represent a new technologically and nutritionally viable product. This can be an alternative production process representing potential for marketing as a final product or used as base for the food preparation containing milk with low lactose content.

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Abstract

Ensuring the provision of suitable living units remains one of the most challenging issues among the architects. The economic conditions in Kosovo represent one of the factors that influenced the functional and spatial change in multi-apartment buildings. Taking into account the passing of time, economic conditions, the requirements and needs of the communities change, those affects change in the functional and spatial aspect. The construction of multi-apartment and individual buildings, as well as other buildings with other uses in the center of the cities represents a delicate issue. On the other hand, the need for reconstruction and re-destination of usage of the existing residential buildings is becoming an important topic for the society in Kosovo. The issue is somewhat sensitive regarding the multi-apartment residential buildings, given that the usable surface is increasingly limited. The next challenge for the architects will be the treatment of the existing areas, their adaption in harmony with the requirements of the new generations, social changes that Kosovo is dealing with. The entire endeavor to reach a more comfortable solution is realized through treatment of the residential spaces not only in function wise, as well as in the exterior, through the transparence in architecture. The aim of the paper is to show transformation of the living spaces through real example, in Prishtina.

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