Authors:M. Barati, M.M. Majidi, A. Mirlohi, M. Safari, F. Mostafavi, and Z. Karami
The vast genetic resources of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, hereafter WB) may hold unique assets for improving barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars for drought stress. To evaluate genetic potential and characterization of variation among a diverse collection of barley and WB genotypes, mostly originated from Iran, a field experiment was performed under three moisture environments (control, mild and intense drought stress) during two years (2012–2014). Considerable variation was observed among the wild and cultivated genotypes for drought tolerance and agronomic traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped genotypes studied into three groups (WB, two-row barley and sixrow barley groups). However, Iranian and foreign WB genotypes were not completely separated, showing a high variation within both gene pools. The high significance of genotype by environment interaction, confirms importance of using accurate target environments for drought stress breeding. A number of WB genotypes with the highest values of the number of tillers, number of seed per spike, seed weight, grain yield and yield stability index under stressed environments were identified as superior genotypes. Most of these genotypes originate from Iran, highlighting the importance of this germplasm in barley breeding.
Thirteen accessions of wild barley (
) resistant to powdery mildew caused by the fungus
were studied with the aim of determining the number of resistance genes and their allelic relationships to the
locus on the short arm of chromosome 1H. In five accessions (PI391130, PI466193, PI466200, PI466495 and PI466510), the resistance was caused by one gene, in seven accessions (PI354949, PI391081, PI466158, PI466197, PI466211, PI466297 and PI466461) by two independent genes and in PI301004 by three independent genes. The type of inheritance of all analysed genes except two was dominant or semi-dominant; only one of two genes in PI391081 and PI466297 was recessive. Allelism tests confirmed that in 10 accessions one gene was allelic with the
locus, and in three accessions (PI391081, PI466193 and PI466297) the resistance genes were different from the
Authors:E. Sheval, Yu. Kazhura, Nina Poleshuk, Elena Lazareva, Elena Smirnova, Natalia Maximova, and V. Polyakov
The extensive use of herbicides in agriculture becomes an important factor in environmental pollution, especially in case of slowly degradable compounds. Some agents act on plants during a long period of time, even if a very low concentration of the herbicide remains in the soil. Here, we investigated the toxicological effect of a low concentration of dinitroaniline herbicide, trifluralin, on growing seedlings of
L. Trifluralin in concentration of 1 μg/ml inhibited root growth. The mitotic activity of meristematic cells was suppressed due to the retardation of metaphase progression — alteration that can be caused by cytoskeleton disorder. Using antibodies to α-tubulin, we investigated the distribution of microtubules in root meristem cells. During all stages of mitosis, the highly regular system of microtubular cytoskeleton observed in control cells was slightly disorganized. An examination of root structure using light and electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell walls did not form normally during cell division that led to the appearance of large multinucleated cells. Also, the premature (pathological) cell differentiation was induced by trifluralin. A part of differentiating cells showed intracellular structural changes that are consistent with programmed cell death. It seems that the development of alterations in trifluralin-treated roots was due to the microtubular cytoskeleton disorganization.
Authors:Ildikó Karsai, B. Kőszegi, G. Kovács, P. Szűcs, Klára Mészáros, Z. Bedő, and O. Veisz
Karsai, I., Hayes, P. M., Kling, J., Matus, I. A., Mészáros, K., Láng, L., Bedő, Z., Sato, K. (2004) Genetic variation in component traits of heading date in
accessions characterized in controlled environments
Horváth, L. & Mészáros, E., 1984. The composition and acidity of precipitation in Hungary. Atmospheric Environment. 18. 1843–1847.
Kádár I., 2000. Az őszi árpa ( Hordeumvulgare L.) tápelemfelvétele karbonátos
Authors:K. V. B. R. Tilak, A. K. Saxena, and A. K. Dwivedi
A pot experiment was conducted to study the response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum in unsterilised organic matter amended soils on the colonization of barley roots by (V)-Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other rhizosphere microflora. The populations of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were higher in amended than in control soils. Paddy straw compost (PSC) stimulated all three groups of organisms (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) more than city compost (CC). The fungal and actinomycetes populations decreased with increasing plant age. The effect was more pronounced in the rhizosphere of paddy straw-amended soils. The mycorrhizal spore count and the colonization of barley roots by (V)-AM were more pronounced in soils amended with PSC than in those amended with CC.
Authors:J.H. Czembor, A. Pietrusińska, U. Piechota, and D. Mańkowski
Barley recombinant lines obtained from crosses and backcrosses of common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars Emir and Golden Promise with bulbosus barley grass (H. bulbosum L.) were tested against differential set of 14 Blumeria graminis D.C. Golovin ex Speer f. sp. hordei – synamorph Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. hordei Em Marchall isolates, pathogenic fungus causing powdery mildew. Powdery mildew resistance was found in 22 from 24 lines tested. Presence of unknown genes was postulated in 13 lines. In six of these lines the unknown genes were postulated present besides Mla12 allele originated from H. vulgare parent (cv. Emir). The only line resistant to infection, from all isolates used, was 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2. Four other lines could be considered highly resistant, because they were susceptible to only one powdery mildew isolate. The possibilities to use the hybrid lines with identified resistance to powdery mildew, especially line 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2 in barley breeding programs were discussed.
The impact of foliar spray fertilizers (Aton Az) on the resistance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) against to individual and combined UV-B radiation and drought effects were investigated. Barley seeds were sown in pots prepared with neutral pH peat substrate. When the 2nd true leaf unfolded, i.e. 7 days after germination, the first spray with microelement and free amino acid fertilizers was carried out; two days after this application, the different irradiation (1 and 3 kJm–2 d–1) UV-B doses and drought effects were started. Exposure lasted for 6 days. The main characteristics of all investigated indicators were assessed at the end of exposure. The largest positive effects of fertilizers on the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of barley were found solely under the impact of drought. Foliar spray fertilizers decreased oxidative stress injury in the leaves by decreasing the malondialdehyde content under solely effects of drought and UV-B radiation, while under the combined effect of the mentioned stress factors, the changes were statistically insignificant. A stronger positive impact of foliar fertilization was detected on the content of photosynthetic pigments (a and b) at solely UV-B radiation effect than at combined effect of investigated factors, when significant changes were detected only in individual cases.