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In the present study the crustal structures of Nile Delta, including Greater Cairo province, and its surroundings, were evaluated using 3D forward gravity and magnetic modeling. The interpretation is also based on the seismic reflection results, well logs data and previous density models. The present results allow to improve the understanding of both the crustal thicknesses and density distributions between the sedimentary cover and the upper mantle in the study area.The high Bouguer anomalies near the Mediterranean coast are mainly caused by deep-seated structures. The crust beneath the Mediterranean coastal region is typically continental, with a thickness of 24 km beneath Rositta and Damitta branches, which increases toward the south. The Greater Cairo province has been modeled with maximum crustal thickness of ca. 34 km. The negative gravity anomalies with minimum values are due to the effect of sedimentary cover and/or basement relief geometry.The main results of this work suggest that the study area could be divided into three different distinctive tectonic zones according to their Moho depth and crustal structures. The southern zone (unstable shelf zone) which covers the Greater Cairo province is characterized by maximum crustal modeled thickness. It also represents the most seismically active tectonic zone in the study area. On the contrary the middle and northern zones show a thinned crustal layer and a correspondingly thicker sedimentary cover.Furthermore, the magnetic anomalies along the Greater Cairo, as deduced from the 3D magnetic modeling, are mainly caused by the upper crustal structures. In particular, the high magnetic anomalies of the southern part of the studied area are interpreted as related to variation in the basement relief near the surface, resulting from block faulting and/or compressional folds.In the northern region near the Mediterranean coastal area the highest magnetic susceptibility anomaly values is affected by the shallow smooth relief of the lower crustal layer. Finally, limited, shallow-seated basaltic intrusions were modeled beneath the western side of Nile Delta. The existence of these basaltic intrusions suggests that the study area was influenced by the opening of the Red Sea and/or Gulf of Suez during the Oligocene time.

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Building information modeling is a process for creating and managing information on a construction project across the project lifecycle. The lifecycle of building includes also a stage of reconstruction and technology of terrestrial laser scanning is an effective method to create 3D building information models of the real state. Laser Scanning is a non-contact technology that captures the shape of physical objects and gives exact representation of the building geometry. Current scanning technology has the ability to send out thousands of beams per second, resulting in a ‘point cloud’ of data. This study offers an overview of the survey planning stages, field operation, processing of point cloud data and the possibility to integrate data into the building information modeling.

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Abstract

Most accidents in roundabouts occur at the entries, partly due to poor visibility. To analyse this problem a sample roundabout with some visibility obstacles was measured by laser scanner and data were put into a 3D model. The fields of view were studied from the viewpoint heights of car and truck drivers as well. To assess the results, three indicators were defined: the hidden sight distance, the hidden sight triangle area and the angle of hide. These indicators were measured in the point cloud model. Through these indicators the adequacy of visibility conditions can be assessed.

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This paper presents a CAD-based approach for a new sheet metal forming technology that is Dieless Incremental Sheet Forming (DSF). This is established through the development of a program that allows a 3D model to be created with the use of a CAD Application Programming Interface (API) and an offline Slave Tool Path calculator based on a commercial CAM program’s output (Master Tool Path). The author will show how to apply parameterizations in the same model by utilizing the CAD API to overcome problems of a commercial post-processor and how to calculate Slave Tool Paths for different forming strategies.

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Thermal convection has been modelled in a 3D model box, in order to estimate the areal density of upwellings and compare it to the density of hotspots, assumed as surface imprints of the cylindrical upwellings of the mantle. The number of the hotspots of the Earth is 40 to 100. If this is translated to a nondimensional areal plume density, using the depth of the convecting layer as length unit, a value of 2-6 is obtained for whole-mantle convection, while this value is 0.04-0.10 for a separately convecting upper mantle. The nondimensional theoretical areal plume density has been found about 0.2-1.0 for reasonable numerical models of the mantle. The fact, that the theoretical value lies between the densities estimated for one- and two-layer mantle systems, supports the possibility of a mixed regime, where some of the plumes come from the base of the mantle, some others from the 660 km boundary.

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Absztrakt:

Bevezetés: A háromdimenziós (3D-s) modellezés és nyomtatás elősegíti a személyre szabott gyógyítást. A kongenitális szívsebészetben a 3D-modellek a vizuális és taktilis ingerek egyesítésével megkönnyítik a komplex anatómia megértését, hozzájárulnak a műtétek megtervezéséhez és elpróbálásához (virtuális műtét). Használatukkal javulhat a kommunikáció a multidiszciplináris gyógyító csapaton belül, illetve a betegek és hozzátartozóik felé. A 3D-modellek gyakran új anatómiai információt is nyújtanak, és alternatív műtéti megoldásokra sarkallnak. Célkitűzés: Mindezen lehetséges klinikai előnyök megvalósulását vizsgáltuk. Módszer: A komputertomográfiás-angiográfiás adatokból elkészült a szívnagyerek virtuális 3D-modellje, amelyből életnagyságú „vértérfogat”- (átlátszatlan anyagból) és egy 1,5×-es nagyítású „üreges” (rugalmas, áttetsző anyagból) 3D-nyomtatvány készült. A modellek pontosságát a műtéti viszonyokkal ellenőriztük. Eredmények: Tizenkét komplex veleszületett szívbeteg (6 fiú, 6 lány, medián életkor: 11 hónap; tartomány: 6,5–82) szívnagyereinek 3D virtuális és 3D nyomtatott modelljét készítettük el szívműtétre való előkészítés keretében. Az intraoperatív viszonyok milliméteres nagyságrendben igazolták a modellek pontosságát. Az atrioventricularis billentyűk 3D-nyomtatással való ábrázolására a módszer jelenleg nem alkalmas. A modellek 8 esetben pontosították a diagnózist, 6-ban új információt nyújtottak (rendellenes coronaria eredés/lefutás, korábban nem észlelt kommunikáció stb.); 6-ban megváltoztatták a műtéti tervet (például megnyitandó szívüreg, intracardialis korrekció mibenléte stb.), 10 esetben műtéttechnikai segítséget adtak. A 3D-modelleken elpróbált műtéti tervet (Aristotle-rizikó medián: 11; 10–14) minden esetben sikerült kivitelezni. A műtétek (10/12 tervezett reoperáció) során szövődmény, halálozás nem fordult elő. A 3D-modellek tetszési indexe, elfogadottsága mind a szakmai csapat, mind a betegek/hozzátartozók körében magas volt. Következtetés: A 3D nyomtatott szívmodellek válogatott esetekben nagymértékben növelhetik a komplex veleszületett szívhibák műtéteinek biztonságát. Számos előnyük mellett – jelenleg – hátrányuk, hogy az elkészítésükkel járó idő- és anyagi ráfordítás finanszírozására még nincs megfelelő biztosítási háttér. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(19): 747–755.

Open access

Abstract

Construction project management is difficult process and important part of efficiency and productivity in construction industry. Currently, construction industry is increasing demands on technology, environmental and social construction parameters in the context of maintaining the balance of economic efficiency and sustainability of the construction and realization of buildings. Progressive technology as knowledge systems and building information modeling are the supporting tool for achieving this. Building information modeling is a progressive intelligent 3D model-based process that gives architecture, engineering, and construction professionals the insight and tools to more efficiently in planning, designing and buildings and infrastructure managing. Knowledge and building information modeling technology include a lot of functions and opportunities for better and easier way to achieve project goal and affect to construction project management process. Research discusses the issue of construction project management trough building information modeling and knowledge technology. The main aim of the paper is to analyze impact of these technologies on efficiency in construction project management.

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In 1937 and 1938, a group of high-relief and round statues were uncovered during the joint expedition of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem and the Department of Antiquities in Palestine at the Khirbet et-Tannur Temple, located in Jordan. This expedition was headed by Nelson Glueck (Figs 1, 2). The statues uncovered are important in that they offer considerable information about Nabataean art and religion. This paper concentrates on one of the high-relief statues, called the Atargatis Panel by its excavator, Glueck. It was chosen as a case study for its availability in Amman, Jordan. The other Atargatis statues found at the site are now in the Cincinnati Art Museum in the United States of America. This paper also examines the Nabataean religious beliefs concerning Atargatis and her fertility cult, in addition to the art style of the statue. Furthermore, the digital 3D imaging documentation of the Atargatis statue at The Jordan Museum is presented. Dense image matching algorithms presented a flexible, cost-effective approach for this important work. These images not only provide geometric information but also show the surface textures of the depicted objects. This is especially important for the production of virtual 3D models used as a tool for documentary, educational and promotional purposes.

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Our research objective was to develop, characterize, and optimize stable form of nano-colloidal carrier with Eudragit-coated solid lipid nanobioparticles (SLNbp) for oral delivery of isradipine (ISR). To achieve, a three factors, i.e., lipid-to-surfactant ratio (A, % w/w), Eudragit L100 (B, % w/w), and sonication time (C, minutes) at three levels (−1 and +1 levels of quality central level) was applied to develop SLNbp using response surface methodology at constant ratio of ISR and rutin. The second-order polynomial quadratic equations of responses [R1, R2, and R3; entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, and drug release] were constructed and also plotted response surface (two- and three-dimensional) plots. The derived polynomial equation and 2D and 3D model were showed the relationship between the responses of the selected independent variables (A, B, and C). The model validation and optimization was performed by numerical checkpoint analysis to predict the optimized solid lipid nanobioparticle formulas (ONbp 1–10). The optimized formulations prepared and during evaluation ONbp 3 has better smaller particle size (106 nm), sustainable release (95.61% up to 40 h), higher EE (97.85%), and drug content (99.92% ± 0.08%) during 3-month storage showed good stability. Therefore, its performance can be considered for further development of stable oral drug delivery system of ISR.

Open access

Polyethylene oxides

Analysis of tablet formation and properties of the resulting tablets

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author: Katharina Picker-Freyer

Abstract  

The aim of this study was to study tablet formation of polyethylene oxides (PEOs) with different molecular masses by means of 3D modeling and comparing the results to those of other more traditional techniques, such as Heckel analysis, analysis by the pressure- time function and energy analysis. The molecular masses ranged between 400,000 and 7,000,000 Da. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, and glass transition temperature were also studied. To complete this study, elastic recovery dependent on maximum relative density and time were determined. Furthermore, the crushing force of the tablets and their morphology were analyzed. The PEOs consist of smooth edged particles of irregular shape; the particle size is similar to one type of MCC, namely Avicel PH 200. The PEOs are much more ductile during compression than MCC. Elastic recovery after tableting is higher than that for tablets made from MCC and continues for some time after tableting. The crushing force of the resulting tablets is low. In conclusion, with regards to direct compression the PEOs do not appear to be useful as sole tableting excipients.

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