Several modifications are proposed of the established methods of iodine determination in serum. Prior to the actual analysis,
the serum is lyophilized. This preliminary treatment permits the use of large samples. Through lyophilization human blood
serum samples can easily be reduced to one-tenth of the original weight. Reduction is even more dramatic with materials from
other than human origin. After irradiation the samples are subjected to chemical treatment in the presence of an iodine carrier
and131I-labelled thyoxine. This procedure has been adopted for the determination of the iodine content and the chemical yield in
one and the same radioactive measurement. The analysis technique itself consists of an open system Schöniger combustion. The
open combustion allows the use of large samples; the gases evolved are absorbed upon their subsequent passage through potassium
hydroxide and hydrochloric acid; the mineralization requires less than two minutes. After the addition of a substochiometric
amount of silver nitrate, silver iodide is precipitated from an ammoniacal solution as a flat sample, which has been found
ideally suited for high efficiency counting with a Ge(Li) detector. The spectrum gives evidence of an excellent decontamination
from the38Cl,80Br and82Br activities. The iodine content can be calculated from the ratio of the photopeak areas at 364.5 keV and 442.7 keV corresponding
to131I and128I, respectively. The chemical procedure requires a mere 15 min, and the recording of the γ-ray spectrum takes no longer than
30 min. The technique is not limited to serum only. It proved well suited for the analysis of many other types of biological
material, e.g. human skin tissues.
The concentrations of titanium and vanadium in biological material, human blood serum, were determined by neutron activation analysis, using a prior coprecipitation with Pb/PDC/2 as well as Bi/PDC/3. Titanium and vanadium were quantitatively determined by measuring the gamma ray photopeaks of the short-lived radionuclides51Ti /5.8 min/ and52V /3.75 min/, respectively. The concentrations ranged from 105.7 to 131.9 ng ml–1 /Ti/ and from 1.30 to 6.05 ng ml–1 /V/. The detection limits for titanium and vanadium under the present experimental conditions were found to be 70 and 0.7 ng for 1 ml of blood serum sample, respectively.
For the determination of Ag, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn in biological materials by gamma-spectrometry of long-lived
radionuclides after long-time irradiation with thermal neutrons, irradiation vials of high purity silica were used so that
the samples could be analysed without the containers being removed. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were tested,
using the standard reference material “Bovine Liver” and identical serum samples. In the case of blood serum the method proved
to be suitable for the determination of Br, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. By analysing samples from several subjects information
about element levels in human serum was obtained.
Authors:M. Saiki, N. Sumita, O. Jaluul, W. Jacob-Filho, and M. Vasconcellos
In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status
of an elderly population residing in São Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied
individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within
the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density
lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations
of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.06).
Authors:J. Kvicala, V. Zamrazil, J. Nemecek, and J. Jiranek
To estimate the status of selenium in seniors of the South Bohemia region, Czech Republic, 481 serum samples from seniors
living in 17 Asylum Houses for seniors in the age between 60 and 99 years were obtained. Samples were analyzed by instrumental
neutron activation analysis with concurrent analysis of 4 reference materials for quality assurance. Average concentration
of serum Se, arithmetic means in individual Asylum Houses, frequency distribution of serum Se concentrations as well as five
years running monitoring of serum Se concentrations of one group of seniors proved selenium deficiency of the elderly population
of the region South Bohemia.
Authors:T. Kupila-Rantala, M. Hyvönen-Dabek, J. Dabek, and J. Räisänen
Proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis has been applied to the determination of total nitrogen concentration of blood sera from hospital patients. Both the reaction14N(p,p
)14N,E= =2313 keV, and the reaction15N(p,
)12C,E=4439 keV, have been used. From 37 patients, the range of the nitrogen concentrations obtained was 9.54–16.3 g/l with a mean of 12.0 g/l. The corresponding total protein concentrations varied between 59 and 96 g/l, measured in a clinical laboratory autoanalyser using the biuret method. The range of the albumin concentrations was 29–46 g/l. The nitrogen concentrations correlated well with the total protein concentrations (r=0.802). The multiple correlation of nitrogen versus (albumin+(total protein-albumin)) gives a coefficient of 0.175 for albumin and 0.161 for total protein-albumin. The results agree with expectations and support the potential usefulness of the rapid PIGE method for medical studies.
Using instrumental neutron activation analysis, the variations in the serum levels of Br, Cs, Na, Rb, Se, and Zn were investigated
in 18 persons in the normal state. By determining the element levels in relation to changes is the serum water content, information
about the binding to the serum protein was obtained. The influence of physiological factors on the serum element levels was
investigated. Changes in the concentrations due to variations in the protein/water ratio and in the zinc level as a result
of different posture were observed. When standardized sampling procedures were used, the variations in the serum element concentrations
during one hour and from day were found to be less than 10%.
Authors:Matthias Pawlak, D. Kaczmarek, A. Nowak, and P. Krutki
Whole-body vibration training (WBV) has been reported to improve both, bone strength and neuromuscular performance. Although changes in hormonal and immunological parameters following vibration exercises were reported, there are still few studies concerning the immune response with respect to different duration of WBV. In our study, we aimed to establish whether three and six months of specific, short-lasting WBV (four bouts lasting 30 s, 1 min rest intervals) influences blood cell counts as well as some immunological parameters in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to two groups trained for three (WBV3mo) or six (WBV6mo) months and results were compared to the age matched control group (C). After the training period, red and white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, as well as interleukin-1b, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were determined. No significant differences between WBV3mo, WBV6mo, and C groups in complete blood counts or in immunological parameters were found, indicating that the whole-body vibration training used in this study did not disturb the balance of examined indices, directly or indirectly involved in inflammatory processes.
Authors:G. Boulle, M. Peisach, W. Dempster, and H. Heese
An investigation was undertaken to measure the trace elements in the blood samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE).
From the measured concentrations an attempt was made to group the blood specimens by pattern recognition methods as a first
step in the search for a possible correlation between the geographical area of domicile and trace elemnt composition. The
trend indicated that children with lower Fe and Br contents were similar in their trace element pattern, were predominantly
from two district, had lower ferritin values and were breast fed longer than the remaining children in the survey.
(corvitin) in a dose 100 mg/kg of animal weight intramuscularly for 7 days (from the 7 th to the 14 th day). On the 14 th day, the experimental rats were sacrificed by bleeding under thiopental anesthesia. For further testing, bloodserum was selected