The present investigation was undertaken to optimize the level of ingredients (milk fat, sugar, and mango pulp) for functional dairy beverage using Response Surface Methodology. Central Composite Rotatable Design with milk fat (%), sugar (%), and mango pulp (var. Chaunsa, %) as independent variables produced 20 different combinations that were used to investigate the effect on viscosity (cP), antioxidant activity, and overall acceptability. The response surface three dimensional graphs were plotted as a function of two variables to show the effect of level of ingredients on physico-chemical and sensory properties of the beverage. Significant correlation models were established with the coefficient of correlation (R2) greater than 0.8. An optimization of process variables was attempted for maximum antioxidant activity and overall acceptability. ANOVA tables revealed that increase in fat and sugar levels lowered the antioxidant activity, while enhancement of mango pulp significantly increased both antioxidant activity and overall acceptability of the beverage. The optimized levels of ingredients were 0.5% milk fat, 6.0% sugar and 30% mango pulp.
Authors:N. Khantisophon, D. Montet, G. Loiseau, S. Rakshit, W. Stevens, and R. Ray
Crantz) starch-based vegetable beverage (cassava milk) was formulated to get a composition close to that of cow’s milk with 3% cassava starch, 4% soybean proteins, 3% soybean oil and 0.3% calcium citrate. Heat treatment of the dry starch at 110 °C for 6 h was done prior to the addition of other components to stabilise milk and to avoid gelatinisation. The most stable form of cassava milk that did not separate into two phases for 10 days was obtained by homogenisation at high pressure 12,000 psi/5 min. Milk with starch particle size of 10 μm was found to have sensory qualities close to that of cow’s milk with white colour and viscosity of 7.8 cP. Cassava milk homogenised at 12,000 psi/5 min with cow’s milk (50%) and aromatised with 1% chocolate flavour was given the highest score by 20 sensory panellists. The final product was a white milky solution with good taste, good digestibility, homogeneous, physically and microbiologically stable, and had a nutritional composition similar to that of cow’s milk.
Authors:L. Locsmándi, G. Kövér, G. Bázár, A. Szabó, and R. Romvári
The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for
determining chemical composition of goose fatty liver was studied. The spectra
of 50 fresh, homogenized liver samples (ether extract content EE=53.2,
SD=4.87%) were taken between 1100 and 2500 nm in reflectance mode, then the
chemical composition and the fatty acid profile was measured (gas
chromatography). Calibration equations were developed using modified partial
least-squares regression. The R
value in estimation of DM, CP and total EE were 0.72, 0.63 and 0.81,
respectively. For the major fatty acids (oleic, palmitic and stearic acid,
51.4, 25.8 and 15.5% of total) the R² values were 0.94, 0.93 and 0.16. The
estimation of the total saturated fatty acid (SAT) proportion and the so-called
unsaturation index (UI) value was effective (R
=0.81 and 0.79, respectively).
The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the NIRS method as a fast and solvent
free alternative of liver qualification. For practical purposes a larger number
of fatty liver samples are needed.
Authors:V. Parrag, J. Felföldi, L. Baranyai, A. Geösel, and F. Firtha
Gaston , E., Frias , J., Cullen , P., O’Donnell , C.P. & Gowen , A. (2011): Hyperspectral imaging for the detection of microbial spoilage of mushrooms. Oral presentation MCF1004 at the 11th International Conference of Engineering and Food . Athens
Authors:D. Varga, Zs. Sándor, Cs. Hancz, I. Csengeri, Zs. Jeney, and Zs. Papp
M artin , J.F. , M ccoy , C.P. , G reenleaf , W. & B ennett , L. ( 1987 ): Analysis of 2-methylisoborneol in water, mud, and channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ) from commercial culture ponds in Mississippi . Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci