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Abstract  

Radon concentration measurements were carried out using solid-state nuclear track-etch detectors (SSNTDs) type CA 80-15 cellulose nitrate films, in a Pleistocenic cave at Petralona, in Halkidiki, Northern Greece, at 55 km from the city of Thessaloniki. Radon levels as high as 88 kBq.m-3 (2.38 nCi.l-1) have been recorded inside the cave equivalent to 11.90 WL in terms of occupational exposure to radon and its decay products. Absorbed dose rates were performed using TL dosimeters, type TLD-200 (CaF2-Dy) in a continuous monitoring program (integrated measurements). Dose rate levels as high as 110 nGy.h-1 were recorded inside the cave. In interpreting the high levels of radiation doses, radioactivity measurements regarding the naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides were carried out in various speleothems found at different sites in the cave.

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The asymptotics of the size of the largest cave is found for a d -dimensional .eld of i.i.d.random variables.For Bernoulli case the problem was investigated by R ´ev ´esz ([7], p =1 /2)and Deheuvels [2].We consider distributions of a general structure.

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A barlangi üledékek vizsgálatát 2008-ban kezdtük meg. Mivel konkrét információink az esetleges szennyezőkről nem voltak, így az első három év folyamán (2008, 2009 és 2010 években) elsősorban a potenciális szennyező anyagokat vettük számba, így vizsgáltuk az üledékek nehézfémtartalmát, szerves szennyezőit és mikrobiológiai állapotát. Az első három év adatai alapján a következő négy környezeti problémát azonosítottuk:

  1. — Nehézfém-szennyezettség szempontjából a barlangi üledékek tisztának mondhatók, kivéve a kadmiumot, melynek értéke gyakran megközelíti, ritkán meg is haladja a talajokban megengedett környezetvédelmi határértéket.
  2. — Szerves szennyezők szempontjából szinte minden évben megjelenik a ftalátok csoportja, melyek műanyaglágyítóként használt vegyületek, és ezáltal jól jelzik a barlangba bejutó vizek szeméttel történő találkozását. Itt elsősorban a patakmedrekbe öntött hulladékból visszamaradó műanyag zsákokból és palackokból kioldódó anyagait értjük, valamint a szennyvíz bekeveredésének lehetőségét.
  3. — Nem állandó, de sajnos gyakran visszatérő probléma az olajszármazékok megjelenése a barlangi üledékekben, melyeket elsősorban a nedves években lehet kimutatni. Sajnos, az olajszármazékok okozta szennyezések mértéke nagyon komoly szintet érhet és ért is el az elmúlt három évben megmintázott talajokban, kiküszöbölésükhöz részletes szennyező forrás vizsgálatokra volna szükség.
  4. — A ftalátok kvantitatív vizsgálata igen komoly környezeti terhelést jelez, mind a barlangi üledékek, mind a felszíni és a felszín alatti vizek esetében. A folyóvízi üledékek - elsősorban a felszíni patakok, de sajnos a barlangi patakok egy részében is - gyakran a határértéket többszörösen meghaladó koncentrációt mutat. A felszíni vízfolyások esetén a határérték több mint 20-szorosát is elérhetik a mért koncentrációértékek.
Javaslatok, kutatási célkitűzések
  1. 1. Javasoljuk a barlangok felszíni vízgyűjtő területeit érintő talajmintázás elindítását a nagy kadmiumtartalom megmagyarázása, illetve az esetleges felszíni és a felszín alatti Cd-tartalom összevetésére.
  2. 2. Javasoljuk a ftalátok rendszeres mérését, monitorozását a barlangi talajokban, illetve a felszíni vizekben, azok üledékeiben, illetve a vízgyűjtő terület talajain, elsősorban a szennyezés forrásának tisztázása és kiküszöbölése céljából.
  3. 3. Javasoljuk továbbá a felszíni olajszennyezési „utak” feltárását, azon olajforrások lokalizálását (pl. utak, létesítmények), melyek tényleges hatást gyakorolnak a barlangok vízminőségére. Ezek a területek, illetve szennyező források aztán a Bükki Nemzeti Parkon belüli szabályozások okszerű és helyspecifikus újragondolását segíthetik elő a karsztvizek védelme érdekében.
A munkát a „Kútfő” TÁMOP-4.2.2.-A11/1/KONV-2012-0049. jelű projekt és a határon átnyúló HUSK/1001/2.1.2/0058 számú projektek támogatták.

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Beron P, Daaliev T, Jalov A 2006: Caves and speleology in Bulgaria. Sofia, Pensoft Becker A, Davenport C A, Eichenberger U, Gilli E, Jeannin P-Y, Lacave C 2006: J. Seismology , 10

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Abstract  

It is suggested to spend some time in a cave for curing respiratory diseases. Some ascribe the healing effect partly to radon. In Hungary in the Hospital Cave of Tapolca the mean radon concentration shows 17 times difference in the winter and in the summer period. The change of the forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was examined measured by 1824 patients in this cave. By 70% of the patients the FEV1 value improved, by 30% it became worse but these were independent from the radon concentration of the cave. Therefore, radon concentration has no positive effect during the treatments performed in Tapolca.

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Summary

Porphyry's Cave of Nymphs is dedicated to deciphering the philosophical and theological significance of the cave described by Homer in the Thirteenth Canto of the Odyssey. However, within the exegesis of the Homeric cave awaits another exegesis concerning the cave in which Mithras sacrifices the bull and in which the initiation of the worshippers and the common meal take place.

According to Porphyry, the cave of the Nymphs is the place in which the worshippers were initiated into the platonic mystery of the descent and ascent of souls. Mithras, assimilated to the Demiurge of the Timaeus, generates souls by killing the bull he has caught, ridden and dragged into the cave which symbolises the cosmos. The souls, which are created by the bull/moon like bees in a sort of bougonia (cf. Virgil, Georgics IV), and which are animated by his blood, descend into the cycle of generation and incarnation and are dragged down by Boreas, the cold wind that keeps them cool in the place of earthly generation. After successive reincarnations the warm wind of Notus dissolves the carnal vestments that imprison them and returns them to the heat of the Sun.

Conclusion. After the comparison between the text of Porphyry and the CIMRM will show that the theme of the descent and ascent of souls is very weak in Mithraic finds, and the reading of tauroctony as bougonia remains deprived of iconographic evidence. To sum up, The Cave of the Nymphs is more relevant to the history of Platonism than to the history of Mithraicism.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Tadeusz Przylibski, Jakub Bartak, Elżbieta Kochowska, Lidia Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Krzysztof Kozak, and Jadwiga Mazur

Abstract  

The article presents new Polish probes SRDN-3, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw, equipped with a semi-conductor detector used for continuous measurements of 222Rn activity concentration. Due to a relatively high lower detection limit, the device is dedicated for use in underground spaces—caves, adits, mines, tourist routes in strongholds, pyramids, etc. Its structure allows for difficult conditions in which the device is transported to the measurement site, as well as hard operating conditions caused chiefly by large ambient relative humidity, reaching up to 100%. The authors present calibration results of these appliances, as well as the results of their work in a cave and an adit in the Sudetes (SW Poland). After almost 2 years of working in difficult conditions, the probes displayed high reliability. No defects of the semi-conductor detectors or the electronics were observed, which ensured problem-free communication of the probe-programmer-PC set. Thanks to this, the authors have a 2 year stock of data, recorded hourly by five probes, at their disposal. The only element that did not withstand the test of extreme operating conditions was one of the combined relative humidity and temperature sensors. No powering problems were observed either, and the batteries were replaced once a year, before the winter season. Also the programmer functioned faultlessly, enabling data transmission to a PC, which, being much more sensitive to operating conditions, had been placed away from the site of probe exposure. After using more sensitive temperature, relative humidity and pressure sensors, SRDN-3 probes will certainly prove an excellent tool for microclimate measurements (including measurement of air-atmosphere exchange) in caves and other underground sites. Even nowadays they are already a satisfactory tool for monitoring 222Rn concentration in underground spaces.

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Abstract  

The sediments of Charkadio Cave (Island of Tilos) have been object of chemical and mineralogical investigation. Sampling the speleothems of Charkadio Cave, it is possible to look back into the island’s younger geological history. Tilos is of non-volcanic origin but neighbored to several volcanoes of the Aegean (Kos, Nisyros, and Giali). We observed a certain coincidence of increased Ba and Sr values in such samples and volcanic activity. Some of the layers of these fine-grained sediments contain volcanic particles (ash grains and lapilli). Interestingly, these strata have the highest content of Ba and Sr, as determined by neutron activation analysis. Additionally to this discovery, Sr-rich barite crystals were found in some of these layers. Thus, Ba and Sr must either exist on the surface of tephra particles in volatile and water-soluble compounds and/or were released by weathering from Ba and Sr containing feldspars (originating from pumice) in the cave sediment environment. Since other cave sediments from Tilos, which were not exposed to volcanic products, contain very much lesser quantities of Ba and Sr, we conclude that mobile Ba and Sr compounds are contributed to the sediment by volcanic fallout.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: J. Somlai, G. Szeiler, P. Szabó, A. Várhegyi, S. Tokonami, T. Ishikawa, A. Sorimachi, S. Yoshinaga, and T. Kovács

Abstract  

In the last few decades attention has been given to improve workplace conditions, primarily to reduce the different health risks. In the air that accumulates in underground workplaces radon may constitute one of the health risks. The radon concentration in the show cave in Tapolca is especially high in summer months, with the annual average in the year 2005 being 7227 Bq/m3, in 2006 8591 Bq/m3. The radon concentration was found to be independent on the location of the measurement. Its value was rather similar for working hours and for the total period. The hours spent in the cave by the workers depend on the number of visitors. The radiation dose, estimated on the basis of personal dosimeters, is significant for those working there especially, employed during the whole year. Taking into consideration the actual working hours and the equilibrium factor, F = 0.4, given in the literature, it approaches and even exceeds the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. With a well organized work schedule, as well as the employment of outside workers during the summer period, the dose limit of 20 mSv/year can probably be maintained. However, on the basis of recent measurements, the actual equilibrium factor was determined to be F = 0.5, which in turn means a further 25% increase in the dose effect.

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Abstract  

Radon alpha-activities were evaluated in different places of a quaternary cave, by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The maximum activity was detected in the place more moved back of the studied cave. The ventilation phenomenon has been investigated. The radon alpha activity and uranium content according to the growth of stalagmite and stalactite samples from the cave were evaluated. A positive correlation has been shown between the uranium distribution (radon) and the stratigraphic order of the stalagmite (and stalactite) samples.

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