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applied them as whole-body movements, not as repetitive, individual movements of the same body part. 9. Comparative Content Analysis The present comparative content analysis applies the aforementioned tools to discover the correspondence in, and between

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(Donath et al 1999 ; Welser et al 2007 ; Xiong and Donath, 1999 ) and begins the work of mapping the emerging field of Science of Science and Innovation Policy (SciSIP) research by combining traditional bibliometric methods with content analysis of a

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Universality through standardization is at the heart of scientific and medical practices. In this study we dealt with the meaning, significance, and implications of standardization through “operationalization” in psychiatric diagnostic criteria by focusing on the effects of the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) III.  What does “operational” mean?* The discussion of “operationalization” in psychiatric diagnosis poses quite a challenge. Given the importance of semantics and the word networks of everyday life in forming descriptions of symptoms and reaching clinical judgments, cultural differences in these semantics inevitably have strong impacts on psychiatric diagnosis. The link between sensitivity and semantics in words enhances this effect. In spite of the difficulties in approaching operationalization in psychiatric diagnosis, several attempts have been made to standardize diagnostic criteria. Prominent examples include the DSM of the American Psychiatric Association and the ICD (International Disease Classification) of the WHO. In this paper we analyzed the effects of standardized diagnostic criteria by performing a content analysis of papers published in the Archives of General Psychiatry from 1978 to 1990. Our results clearly show changes in the research questions, research designs, methodologies, target diseases, and selections of independent and dependent variables.

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The case of Dr. Hwang Woo Suk, the South Korean stem-cell researcher, is arguably the highest profile case in the history of research misconduct. The discovery of Dr. Hwang’s fraud led to fierce criticism of the peer review process (at Science). To find answers to the question of why the journal peer review system did not detect scientific misconduct (falsification or fabrication of data) not only in the Hwang case but also in many other cases, an overview is needed of the criteria that editors and referees normally consider when reviewing a manuscript. Do they at all look for signs of scientific misconduct when reviewing a manuscript? We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 46 research studies that examined editors’ and referees’ criteria for the assessment of manuscripts and their grounds for accepting or rejecting manuscripts. The total of 572 criteria and reasons from the 46 studies could be assigned to nine main areas: (1) ‘relevance of contribution,’ (2) ‘writing / presentation,’ (3) ‘design / conception,’ (4) ‘method / statistics,’ (5) ‘discussion of results,’ (6) ‘reference to the literature and documentation,’ (7) ‘theory,’ (8) ‘author’s reputation / institutional affiliation,’ and (9) ‘ethics.’ None of the criteria or reasons that were assigned to the nine main areas refers to or is related to possible falsification or fabrication of data. In a second step, the study examined what main areas take on high and low significance for editors and referees in manuscript assessment. The main areas that are clearly related to the quality of the research underlying a manuscript emerged in the analysis frequently as important: ‘theory,’ ‘design / conception’ and ‘discussion of results.’

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This paper presents a nonstandard experimental procedure for detection of the presence of salts in building materials. The proposed tests helped modeling the deterioration of specific historical building materials caused by salts. The specimens were subject to visual survey and scanning electron microscope analyses, after submerging them in salt solutions. The results showed the damage of brick, cement based mortar and lime based mortar, caused by various concentrations of sulphate and chloride solutions. By this method various types of salt crystals could be identified. In cement and lime based mortars larger extents of salt deposits were found. A relevant difference between the control samples and the salt treated samples was observed.

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It is known that there are significant correlations between linking and geographical patterns. Although interlinking patterns have been studied in various contexts, co-inlinking patterns on the Web have only been studied as indicator of business competitive positions. This research studies the use of co-inlinks to local government Web sites, assesses whether co-inlinking follows geographic patterns and investigates reasons for creating the co-inlinks. Strong evidence was found that co-inlinking is more frequent to municipalities in the same functional region than to municipalities in different functional regions, indicating that this geographic aspect influences co-inlinking, even though geographic co-inlinking was not a strong trend overall. Because the functional regions are created based on cooperation between the municipalities, we have indirectly been able to map cooperation from co-inlinking patterns on the Web. The main reason to create co-inlinking links to municipalities was that the source of the links wanted to show a connection to its region.

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Bibliometric measurements, though controversial, are useful in providing measures of research performance in a climate of research competition and marketisation. Numerous bibliometric studies have been performed which rely on traditional indices (such as the journal impact factor and citation index) and provide little descriptive data regarding the actual characteristics of research. The purpose of this study was two-fold, to develop three novel bibliometric indices, designed to describe the characteristics of research (relating to evidence base, quantitation and collaboration), and to apply them in a cross-sectional audit of original research articles published in Australian professional association journals across medicine, nursing and allied health in 2007. Results revealed considerable variation in bibliometric indices across these journals. There were emerging clusters of journals that published collaborative research using higher levels of evidence and reported quantitative data, with others featuring articles using lower levels of evidence, fewer quantitative data and less collaboration among authors.

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The subject of the paper is a folk prayer, a German popular text, which was collected by Zsuzsanna Erdélyi from a Swabian woman in Hungary. The prayer is a modern textual version of late medieval ars moriendi. It can be regarded as a folk prayer as it was in use among the common people, but its authorship cannot be linked to the common people. The author might have been a person from the lower clergy, with profound knowledge of theology and the Bible. This religious text satisfied a spiritual need among the people, as it was read out by the bed of the dying person, thus assisting the soul in reaching heaven. If the dying person recited it, or if it was read out to him, the prayer promised delivery from sin and automatic salvation without clerical mediation. No wonder such prayers were disapproved of and even banned by the Church.

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Summary The purpose of this study was to develop a method for characterizing the page and linking patterns related to dramatic events on the Web. As a specific case, we characterized Web pages linking to the set of pages on anthrax indexed by the Yahoo directory (generally acknowledged as a high quality directory). The sample of Web pages was collected shortly after anthrax became a matter of widespread concern (November 2001). The findings show that at that time the “typical' source page was either a news item or a page with a list of links. Most of the examined links were not navigational but linked to the target page in order to provide additional content. Many Web sites added hyperlinks to pages providing presumably authoritative and high quality information on anthrax rather than supplying the information themselves. The results show that Web authors link extensively to presumably “high quality' pages. The methods presented here can be utilized in order to characterize pages and linking patterns of Web pages linking to a set of predefined pages, and the findings of this specific study can serve as a basis for comparison.

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