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the release of corticosterone from the adrenal cortex of rodents. Corticosterone can easily pass the blood-brain barrier and bind to the specific receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) [ 3 ]. These two

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Marek Opalka, Justyna Kugla-Owczarska, Barbara Kaminska, Helena Puchajda-Skowronska, Wioletta Hryniewicka, and Luiza Dusza

., Staszkiewicz, J., Skowronski, M. T., Krazinski, B. and Okrasa, S. (2004): The effect of oxytocin on cortisol and corticosterone secretion in cyclic gilts — in vivo and in vitro studies. Reprod. Biol. 4 , 35

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. J. and Potter , M. A. ( 2009 ): Corticosterone responses in birds: individual variation and repeatability in Adelie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) and other species, and the use of power analysis to determine sample sizes . Gen. Comp

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corticosterone metabolism in obese Zucker rats. Endocrinology 141(2), 560–563 (2000) Walker B.R. Understanding the role of glucocorticoids in obesity: tissue-specific alterations of

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Davis, G. S., Anderson, K. E., Carroll, A. S. (2000) The effects of long-term caging and molt of Single Comb White Leghorn hens on heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, corticosterone and thyroid hormons. Poultry Sci. 79 , 514

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Selected cortisone derivatives (corticosterone acetate, 11-dehydrocorticosterone acetate, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, allo-dihydrocortisone, hydrocortisone, and cortisone) have been separated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Experimental partition coefficients (log P exp ) of the derivatives were determined for the n -octanol-water system. Chromatographic data ( R F , R M , t R , and log k ) were correlated with experimental (log P exp ) and with theoretical n -octanol-water partition coefficients ( A log P S , IA log P , log P Kowwin , x log P , C log P , mi log P , log P Rekker ) and with the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance ( HLB ) of the compounds. It was found that corticosterone acetate should have the highest lipophilicity whereas cortisone should have the lowest. It was found that the chromatographic retention data ( R F , R M , t R , and log k ) correlated best with mi log P and x log P . Because the experimental values (log P exp ) of all the cortisone derivatives investigated were closest to mi log P values ( r = 0.9915) we conclude that mi log P is the best theoretical partition coefficient for evaluation of the lipophilicity of these cortisone derivatives.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: B. Bojková, P. Orendáš, L. Friedmanová, M. Kassayová, I. Ďatelinka, E. Ahlersová, and I. Ahlers

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged melatonin administration on chosen metabolic and hormonal variables in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Melatonin was administered in tap water (4 μg/ml) daily from the 6th month of age. Rats were fed a standard type of diet ad libitum and were kept in a light regimen L:D - 12:12h. The experiment was terminated after 12 weeks of melatonin administration. Melatonin decreased body mass during the whole experiment in females and from the 42nd day of the experiment in males. Relative heart muscle weight in females and absolute/relative thymus weight in males were increased after melatonin administration. Melatonin decreased glycaemia, heart muscle glycogen concentration in females and liver glycogen concentration in both sexes. Serum insulin concentration in males was decreased; serum corticosterone concentration was increased in both males and females. Serum triacylglycerol and heart muscle cholesterol concentration in females were decreased, however in males serum and heart muscle cholesterol concentration was increased. Liver phospholipid concentration in females was decreased and heart muscle phospholipid concentration in males was increased. Melatonin increased malondialdehyde concentration in heart muscle in males and in liver in both sexes. Melatonin induced prominent sexdependent changes in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Khadiga G. Adham, Manal H. Farhood, Maha H. Daghestani, Nadia A. Aleisa, Ahlam A. Alkhalifa, Maha H. El Amin, Promy Virk, Mai A. Al-Obeid, and Eman M. H. Al-Humaidhi

One of the common causes of iron overload is excessive iron intake in cases of iron-poor anemia, where iron saccharate complex (ISC) is routinely used to optimize erythropoiesis. However, non-standardized ISC administration could entail the risk of iron overload. To induce iron overload, Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with subacute (0.2 mg kg−1) and subchronic (0.1 mg kg−1) overdoses of ISC for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Iron status was displayed by an increase in transferrin saturation (up to 332%) and serum and liver iron burden (up to 19.3 μmol L−1 and 13.2 μmol g−1 wet tissue, respectively) together with a drop in total and unsaturated iron binding capacities “TIBC, UIBC” as surrogate markers of transferrin activity. Iron-induced leukocytosis (up to 140%), along with the decline in serum transferrin markers (up to 43%), respectively, mark positive and negative acute phase reactions. Chemical stress was demonstrated by a significant rise (p > 0.05) in indices of the hemogram (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes) and stress metabolites [corticosterone (CORT) and lactate]. Yet, potential causes of the unexpected decline in serum activities of ALT, AST and LDH (p > 0.05) might include decreased hepatocellular enzyme production and/or inhibition or reduction of the enzyme activities. The current findings highlight the toxic role of elevated serum and liver iron in initiating erythropoiesis and acute phase reactions, modifying iron status and animal organ function, changing energy metabolism and bringing about accelerated glycolysis and impaired lactate clearance supposedly by decreasing anaerobic threshold and causing premature entering to the anaerobic system.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Jian Wang, Dan Zhao, Jie Li, Guohong Wang, Lanping Hu, Jiaging Shao, Ping Gu, Hong Du, and Yangt Wang

Our studies explore the changes of blood corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 concentrations and the pituitary ACTH expression in rats after water floating in the presence or absence of following high-intensity exercise. The rats were randomly assigned into three groups. Group A served as control; Group B received 180 minutes water floating and psychological (fear) stimulation; Group C received the same treatment as Group B in addition and 120-minutes non-stop running. Compared to Group A, Group B showed a significant increase of IL-2 (19.91 ± 2.52 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.18 ± 0.08 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05); Group C demonstrated a significant increase of CORT (977.22 ± 207.36 ng/ml vs. 434.58 ± 110.45 ng/ml, P <0.01) and IL-1β (0.21 ± 0.04 vs. 0.16 ± 0.06 ng/ml, P < 0.05), IL-2 (20.29 ± 4.23 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05) levels, and a significant decrease of ACTH (16.95 ± 5.46 vs. 22.96 ± 7.32 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Immunohistochemical staining showed the decreased number of pituitary ACTH-positive cells in both Groups B and C (P < 0.05) as compared to Group A. These results have lead us to believe that acute psychological stress can activate the pituitary-adrenal axis and lead to elevation of serum IL-2, IL-6 concentrations. Combined with high-intensity exercise, it can result in the increase of serum CORT, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 levels, and the suppression of ACTH.

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in response to stress have been found to be more reliable indicators than plasma corticosterone values ( Gross and Siegel, 1983; McFarlane and Curtis, 1988 ). Gross and Siegel (1983) suggested that the magnitude of changes caused in the counts of

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