The paper explores the nature of cross-linguistic influence in morphology. 30 Estonian (a closely related L1) and 30 Russian (a non-related L1) beginning and advanced learners of L2 Finnish were tested for their skills in nominal inflection in three different tasks: separate nouns of morphophonologically varying inflectional categories to be inflected in several plural case forms in writing, the same nouns to be used in a narrative writing task and in an oral inflection task. The nouns were selected to represent various degrees of inflectional and/or semantic similarity between Finnish and Estonian (for Russian no such similarity exists). The results indicate that—in opposition to what has been previously claimed—not only does cross-linguistic influence exist within the domain of morphology but it also varies systematically across inflectional categories and between groups at different levels of general skills in Finnish.
Authors:Heli Talvik, Epp Moks, Erika Mägi, T. Järvis, and Illa Miller
The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution and possible transmission routes of Toxocara spp. infection in Estonia. Out of 454 faecal and sand samples collected from park lawns and sandpits in the town of Tartu, 19 were Toxocara positive (4.2%). Out of the 45 sandpit samples 17.8% were Toxocara positive. Cat faeces was found in 21 sandpit samples. Parasitological necropsies were performed on 41 euthanised stray dogs and 27 cats in the Tallinn Dog Home. Additionally, 13 wild free-roaming brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were captured from the Tallinn Dog Home territory, necropsied and studied for the presence of Toxocara larvae. Toxocara canis adults were found in 14.6% of the dogs and Toxocara cati (syn. mystax) adults in the small intestines of 48.2% of the cats examined. Larval infection was detected in the kidney and liver in 5 dogs (12.2%). Our study demonstrated only low-level larval Toxocara infections in adult dogs. Toxocara larvae were not found in cats and brown rats. According to the results of this study, cats more often carry Toxocara infection than dogs. Under our conditions, stray and free-roaming cats are the main contaminators of the environment with Toxocara eggs. Children playing in sandpits are the main risk group for larval toxocarosis.
Adam, Frane; Kristan, Primoz; and Tomšic, Marvez (2009) ’Varieties of Capitalism in Eastern Europe (with Special Emphasis on Estonia and Slovenia)’ Communist and Post-Communist Studies , Vol. 42, No. 1, 65
of Popular Initiative: The Radical Right in the Interwar Estonia. Theses submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London.
TILLICH, Paul 1963: Christianity
Authors:Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Raimundas Kirvaitis, and Eleonora Dagienė
three Baltic States—Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
The paper discusses evolution of scientific publications issued in the Baltic States during the last 20 years of independence and referred in international databases. Special attention is given
Authors:Tiit Kaljuvee, Merli Keelmann, Andres Trikkel, and Rein Kuusik
biggest of them are concentrated in USA, Russian Federation, Congo, Brazil, China, etc. Active exploitation of OS takes place in Estonia (for electricity generation and for shale oil production), Brazil (shale oil), China (shale oil), modestly in Israel