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Abstract  

Abstract Passive air samplers (polyurethane foam disks) were deployed at 25 urban sites and 66 rural sites over the period of July to October 2005, partly between October 2005 and January 2006 for about 120 days across China, and analyzed for extractable organo-chlorine /-bromine /-iodine (EOCl/EOBr/EOI) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using hybrid neutron activation analysis (NAA) combined with gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentration of EOCl, EOBr, EOI and ΣPCBs among all the sites were 173.7, 3.5, 1.0 and 0.74 ng/d, respectively. Higher values of EOCl/Br/I and PCBs were detected in the areas of high usage and high emission, which were linked to relatively high-income areas in China, while lower in the west ill-developed region of China, which indicated that these pollutants mainly came from industrial pollution. Higher EOCl contents in traffic areas stated that the exhaust emission from vehicle was another main source of organochlorines in the air. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (84 PCB congeners) to total EOCl were 0.02–3.0%, which implied that most of EOCl measured in air were unknown.

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Abstract  

The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).

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The LIFE 02ENV/RO/000461AIR-AWARE project is partly dedicated to research on the flora and invertebrate fauna of downtown Bucharest (Romania). In this area, products of local industrial pollution, heavy metals, SO 2 and powders in suspension exceed standard levels. The pilot zone is represented by two public parks in downtown Bucharest. Thysanopterological samples were collected from the herbaceous layer, on both weeds and ornamentals, following a transect approach. The preliminary results revealed a biodiversity that decreased from the park centres, which suffered the least air pollution, towards the edges of the parks, which were the most polluted. The dominant species was Frankliniella intonsa , which had high values for structural and functional indices, as well as morphological changes in body size, colour and antennae, all due to the air pollution. F. intonsa could be considered to be a very sensitive bioindicator of environmental pollution. Future analysis, however, may reveal whether Bagnalliella yuccae, F. intonsa or Haplothrips niger are more sensitive bioindicators for air pollution.

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32 501 509 Pukacki, P.M., Kamińska-Rozek, E. 2002. Long-term implications of industrial pollution stress on lipid composition in Scots pine

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1978 46 1251 1271 Hettige, H. — Mani, M. — Wheeler, D. (2000): Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: The

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Chlodny, J., L. Matuszczyk, B. Styfi-Bartkiewicz and D. Syrek. 1987. Catchability of the egigeal fauna of pine stands as a bioindicator of industrial pollution of forests. Pol. J. Ecol. 35: 271–290. Syrek D

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