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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of goat’s milk fermented by Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 on pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus strain, as well as to determine the differences of inhibitory potential between fermented goat’s and cow’s milk. The results showed significantly higher inhibitory effect of fermented goat’s milk on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus compared to that of fermented cow’s milk. Fermented goat’s milk inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus during the whole fermentation period. In contrast to fermented goat’s milk, weaker inhibitory effect of fermented cow’s milk was observed only during the first phase of fermentation (incompletely fermented samples with higher pH values and lower number of viable cells of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46). The obtained results suggested that there was no correlation between changes of pH or CFU of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 during fermentation and the inhibitory effect of fermented cow’s and goat’s milk. However, the results suggested some correlation between the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth and the content of SCFA and MCFA in fermented cow’s milk. At the same time, considerably higher amounts of all examined SCFA and MCFA were produced in goat’s milk in all the phases of the fermentation process.

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The present paper examines the crucial passages in Lucanus, Valerius Flaccus, Statius and Sily concerning suicide. Lucanus presents a fanatical eulogy of suicide, Valerius Flaccus a rather calculated approach which is guided by almost philosophical considerations resembling those given by the philosopher Seneca, Statius focuses on the problem of self determination and tyranny. Sily’s account of the Saguntine suicide combines and modifies different elements of the literary tradition, which sometimes makes it difficult to ascertain the value judgement his narrative is meant to convey to his readers.

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The messenger speeches in some of Seneca's tragedies (the most extensive ones can be read in Agamemnon and Hercules Furens) constitute special epic details of the works. Their narrative technique, intertextual references and representation of time link them not with the dramatic literary form, but with the epic one, and Vergil's Aeneid is, beyond any doubt, their most important 'hypertextus'. The setting of the messenger reports has not been subordinated to the dramatic efficacy of the main conflict, they produce rather a generic multiplicity. The reform of closed literary forms and the generic heterogeneity are not unique phenomena in the literary life of this period; the meaning and importance of the innovation made by Seneca cannot be judged separately from the most important literary achievements of the period: Luc an's Bellum Civile and Petronius' Satyricon

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In 1640 Thomas May publishes his Supplementum Lucani in hexameters. His Continuation of Lucan's Historicall Poem till the Death of Iulius Caesar in blank verse has already appeared in 1630 and - in a second version - in 1633. As republican the author is fond of M. Porcius Cato Uticensis, depicting Caesar's opponent as a stoic and wise man and a timeless symbol of liberty. May's Supplementum was read as integral part of Lucan's Bellum Civile up to the 18th century, when Joseph Addison and Johann Christoph Gottsched wrote their Cato-plays.

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The paper deals with some parts of the first, seventh, eighth and ninth book of the Pharsalia that focus either on Pompey or Caesar. The aim of the analysis of these passages is to show that Lucan alluded to Latin as well as Greek poets in order to place the characters of his heroes in a wider literary and mythical context.

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The article analyzes a simile of the Panegyric on the emperor Avitus by the Late Antique poet Sidonius Apollinaris (430–486 CE). The Vandals who sacked Rome in 455 become terrible wolves. Sidonius has to exaggerate the drama of the event experienced by Rome in order to exalt the salvific role played by the emperor Avitus. Sidonius echoes a lot of Vergil’s pastoral landscapes and other epic similes or phrases by Statius, Silius, Valerius Flaccus, Lucan. This simile is a good example of the poetry of Sidonius and of the literary conceptions of the Late Antique Literature.

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Abstract  

The first humanist Latin epic in Hungary was written by the Transylvanian humanist of Moravian origin, Stephanus Stierxel (or Taurinus, in his latinized name). The work appeared in 1519 in Vienna, under the title Stauromachia id est Cruciatorum Servile Bellum. The present study reviews the previous interpretations of the epic, which chose as its subject the 1514 peasants' revolt, led by Gyrgy Dsza. Some of the interpretations state that the author's sympathy is expressed towards the noblemen, who fell victim to the riots; some state the opposite: the author stands on the side of the peasants. According to the author of the present study, neither of these views is well founded. He supports his opinion with genre-analysis, showing that the work is an epic-parody, based on the Homeric Batracomyomachia, translated and made widely known by Reuchlin. On the other hand he shows that the author of the epic, following the Erasmian Riccardo Bartholini, condemns both the arrogance of the aristocracy and the cruelty of the peasants: both classes help to destroy the unity of Christian Europe, opening a way to the Islamic conquerors waiting at the borders. This is the reason why the author of the epic chose Lucan's epic on the Roman civil war as his moral guide in his historic pessimism, and adapted the motives of this work according to his own poetic goals. Imitation of Lucan in such format is unprecedented in the whole European Neo-Latin literature.

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The grieving city

Lucan’s aged Rome and the morphology of sovereignty

Neohelicon
Author: Manuel Aguirre

Abstract  

Using a fragment from Lucan’s De bello civili as a convenient fulcrum for the exploration of the theme of Kingship, the article takes recourse to Propp’s model to show that a conventional ‘plot’ can be uncovered in the fragment. It then isolates a number of basic motifs found in it and shows that they recur, at predictable points and with predictable functions, in other textual versions of this ‘plot’. Thirdly, it argues that the integration of plot and motifs into one pattern over a wealth of widely disparate texts provides reliable evidence as to the existence and nature of a European theme of kingship in which the figure of woman plays a conspicuous role. The article contends that this is the old theme of Sovereignty which, though mostly familiar to students in certain areas of medieval Celtic fiction, can be shown to obtain in other European literatures; a subsidiary contention will be that the Sovereignty theme can be approached morphologically. It is shown that by the side of the Adventure of the Hero there is need for a second, more inclusive model that will do justice to the role the female figure plays in the heroic adventure. The article also concludes that (pace Propp) structure and motifs are not two independent or unrelated aspects of the text.

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Pospišil J., Palič, A., Vrtovšnik, G. & Dikanovič-Lučan, Z. (1988): The correlation of redox potential and some chemical parameters in spinach purée during processing and frozen storage. Acta Alimentaria , 27

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. Levitsky , Steven and Way , Lucan , Competitive Authoritarianism ( 2010 ). Melegh , Attila , On the East/West Slope: Globalization, Nationalism, Racism and Discources on

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