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The paper seeks to explore the pricing strategies used by Hungarian food retail chains and how these strategies are related to the market and financial performance of the chains. A two-phase empirical research was carried out in 2011/2012. The research is based on 44 in-store observations, the analysis of price promotion leaflets and interviews with retail professionals. In-store observations focused on collecting data on baseline prices. The price promotion leaflets enabled the assessment of the promotional activity of the observed retailers. The interviews were used to check the validity of the research results. By grouping the analysed 11 retail chains along baseline price levels and price promotion activities, three different types of pricing strategies were identified. A relationship was found between the three pricing strategies and the performance indicators of the included chains. An important finding is that retail chains with a medium price level and low promotional activity were the least successful, while retailers with a low price level and high promotional activity achieved the best performance.

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During the last decades numerous studies have pointed out that good quality goods and satisfied customers are not the only two ingredients in the strive for profitability; it is rather the issue of loyal customers and loyalty that need to be placed in focus. What is loyalty and how can it be measured? Is there a general model, or are there various factors influencing customer behaviour and attachment? In which factors does the measurement of loyalty have validity and is it worth to apply these for organisations enjoying a monopolistic market position? The paper seeks to find answers to these questions, and besides exploring the theoretical background it also presents the findings of an empirical study of the loyalty of customers in the energy sector in Hungary. This study shows that this particular market consists of customers of various attitudes, which means that in order to study their loyalty different marketing methods are needed.

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The twenty-first century brought with it the proliferation of new media. We carry mobile devices and smartphones with us nearly everywhere we go. Constantly hooked up to the world by these tools, the bigger question is why we are sometimes not available. Our personal networks have partly migrated to online social networks, and new networks now penetrate our everyday lives in the digital sphere. In this online survey research, the authors searched for insights into how important smartphones and Facebook, the most popular social media site in Hungary, have become in people's lives. The kinds of attitudes that characterise the use of these tools were analysed, especially in the case of privacy and the use of personal data. The aim of this research — by establishing the actual situation — is to show how modern media, publicity, and privacy are linked, and how people reveal themselves by their constant media presence.

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The aim of this paper is to describe the consumer behaviour and everyday lifestyle patterns of Hungarian university and college students. The results are gained from an international survey, carried out by the Department of Environmental Economics and Technology at the Corvinus University of Budapest, supported by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. As background literature, characteristics of the consumer society and the development of sustainable consumption as a concept are interpreted in the paper. The empirical analysis aims to describe the most important clusters of students, based on the factors of their consumer behaviour, environmental activism and pro-environmental everyday habits. Our results identify two extreme clusters which most significantly differ from each other: the environmental activists and the indifferent group. However, a third cluster has the most modest consumer behaviour, namely the group which considers product features, energy consumption and the behaviour of producers. They spend the least on consumer goods. The three other clusters show quite mixed lifestyle patterns.

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This study investigates the bank selection criteria of undergraduate students who are future potential customers of banks from different regions of the world in a small island economy by comparing the selection factors of international students for the first time. Survey results of 258 respondents show that there are not huge differences in the bank selection factors between Turkish and non-Turkish international students in the case of a state university in North Cyprus. “Availability and convenient location of ATM services” and “speed and quality of service” are the most important factors for considering banks and their services for both Turkish and non-Turkish undergraduate students.

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binge and non-binge sexual activities. Methods Participants Our group consisted of nine CSB males aged 22–37 years ( M  = 31.7, SD  = 4.85; Table  1 ). All patients suffered from recurrent sexual fantasies

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Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) ( 2002 ): Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals: Approved Standard . Second edition. NCCLS document M31-A2. National Committee for

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Boris Habrun, Ivana Račić, Relja Beck, Ana Budimir, Miroslav Benić, Gordan Kompes, Silvio Špičić, and Željko Cvetnić

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2008): Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Test for Bacteria Isolated from Animals. Approved Standard — Third edition. CLSI document M31-A3, ISBN 1-56238-659-X

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe, Suman Choudhary, Peter Schierack, Lothar H. Wieler, Olufunmilola Bamidele Makanjuola, Albert B. Olayemi, and Muna Anjum

. 16. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Performance standards for antimicrobial diskdilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. 2002 Approved standard M31-A2

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2007 60 775 781 Committee of Laboratory Standards Institute, Guideline M31-A3- Performance Standards for Antimicrobial

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