To join the Eurozone (EZ), a candidate country has to fulfil five nominal Maastricht convergence criteria and ensure compliance of national legislation with the acquis communautaire. With this regard special difficulties pose the fiscal criterion relating to the maximum allowed budget deficit of 3 per cent of GDP. If it is not met, the European Commission launches the Excessive Deficit Procedure. Currently, such formula applies to France, Spain and the United Kingdom. Although the issue is not absolutely certain, one can assume that euro will weather the present difficulties and will come out stronger, though the economically unjustified Euro scepticism of some countries is not helping. It may be expected that in the 2020s the European Monetary Union will be joined by all countries that are still using their national currencies and that the EU will be extended to include new member states, enlarging the euro area further. In this article authors are discussing the issue whether Poland will join the EZ in the coming years, considering the challenges of meeting all Maastricht criteria, on the one hand, and the reluctance of the government to give up the national currency, on the other. A mixed method combining the results of qualitative and quantitative research has been used to empirically verify the research question presented.
This paper aims to shed light on the prevailing public narrative regarding psychedelics and the media’s role in cultivating it. The study focuses on the four states of the Visegrad Alliance, whose members gained independence from the Soviet Union and later joined the European Union simultaneously. Thus, ominous substances were introduced to their drug markets and wider societies around the same period, yet their current drug policies and international stances on drug related issues differ vastly. The paper argues that although the so-called psychedelic renaissance is rather visible and mediatized in wealthy occidental countries, due to a harsh stigma surrounding psychedelics in the former Eastern Bloc, the state of psychedelic science is lagging behind its potential.
Applying mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative, primary and secondary data collection, the effects of mass media, and the impact of the respective cultural and legal environments of each country are compared and analyzed, using multiple linear regressions, mediation, and moderation analyses.
Results and conclusions
As frequent viewers of television demonstrate a lower level of informedness and a more negative attitude toward psychedelics, the findings of this paper are parallel to what is a frequent topic among psychedelic researchers and one that poses important institutional, financial, and reputational challenges on the progress of science. The vision of this study is to foster a public discourse that is more balanced and in which real and relevant risks are addressed.
Increasing the number of students who complete their higher education (HE) studies is growing significantly across Europe; it is seen to contribute to individual and national prosperity, and to improve the efficiency of the HE system. The Higher Education Drop-out and Completion in Europe project examined the issue of “study success.” The methodology utilized a literature and policy review, two surveys of an HE expert in each European country, and eight in-depth mixed-method national case studies. This paper considers how in many European countries study success is not explicitly defined, and national policies can be ambiguous or even detrimental due to the lack of clarity about, and alignment with, study success. These flaws are reinforced by the lack of indicators and tools to measure study success, which would facilitate evaluation to improve national policies and institutional actions. These issues are illuminated by a comparison between the Czech Republic and England. A widely agreed definition of study success contributes to better policy alignment and allows performance indicators to be developed, which fosters a more coherent national and institutional approach to improving study success, but this needs to be underpinned by a shared national commitment, which values and promotes study success.
( 2003 ): Principles of MixedMethods and Multimethod Research Design . In: Tashakkori , A. – Teddlie , C. (eds): Handbook of MixedMethods in Social and Behavioral Research . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage , pp. 189 – 208
within a mixedmethods paradigm: Toward a resolution of the alienation between researcher and practitioner in psychotherapy research . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training , 47 ( 4 ), 427 – 441