Authors:A. Naumov, S. Vonsovich, B. Derzhavets, and A. Trukhov
An optimal software and information system for NAA techniques has been developed. The system includes a data base and software complex. A number of original analog simulation algorithms of the gamma-spectrum of an activated sample were tested. The calculations of the metrological characteristics of optimal AA conditions were used as a basis. The analog simulation program for activation in a reactor, neutron generator, or with a252Cf radiation source simulates the -spectrum of a sample taking into account the decay chains up to the 15th link. A research of the optimal activation conditions for the determination of elements is conducted within a wide range of variations using the data base management system.
Authors:Tian Weizhi, Ni Bangfa, Wang Pingsheng, and Nie Huiling
Certifications of trace elements in existing CRMs, especially biological CRMs, are far from satisfactory. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for its inherent advantages combined with newly established parametric standardization, may contribute to improve this situation. The continuing progress of the hybrid extended k0-relative NAA technique developed in our laboratory is discussed. Examples are given to show the reliability of the method in certification of multielements. RNAA is still one of the best methods, or even the method of choice, in analysis at sub-g/g concentration levels. The suitability of the technique for this purpose has been studied through the determination of rare earth elements at ng/g concentration level in two Chinese biological CRMs using both RNAA and ICPMS. Sampling behaviors of multielements in CRMs have been studied by INAA in an effort to develop CRMs suitable for analysis with small sample sizes.
Authors:C. Zamboni, M. Suzuki, S. Metairon, M. Carvalho, and O. Sant’Anna
The Br (0.0022 ± 0.0006 gL−1), Ca (0.113 ± 0.012 gL−1), Cl (3.07 ± 0.36 gL−1), K (2.63 ± 0.14 gL−1), Mg (0.045 ± 0.002 gL−1) and Na (2.09 ± 0.10 gL−1) concentrations were determined in whole blood of SJL/J mice using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Eleven
whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications
in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. Moreover, the correlation with human blood estimation
allows to checking the similarities for studying muscular dystrophy using this model animal.
Authors:K. Ellis, R. Shypailo, P. Schoknecht, and W. Pond
Total body neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to examine the elemental composition of 22 piglets in the weight range 0.7 kg to 3.4 kg. The accuracy of the NAA technique, compared to direct chemical carcass analysis, established it as an equivalent chemical criterion (reference) method. The body composition of 14 human infant cadavers was also examined by NAA and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The DXA-derived lean, fat, and bone compartments were compared with an NAA chemical model of composition. Each of the three compartments was significantly correlated (r=0.85–0.95,p<0.001) for the two independent assays, although there were substantial differences for the estimated size of the compartments for individual infants.
Authors:M. Cheema, M. Mufazzal Saeed, Akbar Ali, and Munir Ahmed
Extraction of Hg(II), Se(IV), Mn(II) and Co(II) has been carried out with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoroacetyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (HPMTFP) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) into chloroform from pH 1–10. Quantitative extraction of Hg(II), Mn(II) and Co(II) at pH 4 with equimolar 0.05M (PMTFP+TPPO) in chloroform was observed. Se(IV) remains unextracted at this pH range. The stoichiometric composition of the extracted complexes M(PMTFP)2·nH2O (M=Mn, Hg), M(PMTFP)2·2TPPO (M=Mn and Co) and Co(PMTFP)2·TPPO·H2O at less than 0.1M TPPO has been established. The formation constantsKm,0 andKm,n and stability constantsm,n have been computed. The analytical method developed was applied to the IAEA standard reference material (SRM) potato fluor V-4 for the determination of these elements using NAA technique.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates
over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different
processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA)
technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L),
Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found
very high in crude textile’s effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among
the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands,
chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious
pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively
with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit.
Authors:A. Sengupta, B. Rajeswari, R. Kadam, and R. Kshirsagar
The use of serpentine as a potential nuclear shielding material necessitates a chemical quality control of the samples before
its use in reactors. With this in view, characterization of these mineral samples was carried out using inductively coupled
plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods. The analytical
results obtained by both ICP-AES and NAA techniques were found to be comparable. Na, Cr, Co, Zn, and Cu were found to be present
in all samples of Indian origin while Ga, Ag, Ni, and Cd were found to below the limits of detection. A comparison on the
detection limits of elements of interest was also carried out by both the analytical techniques and found to be in good agreement.
An infrared spectroscopic investigation was also carried out on all the mineral samples. Bands at 3,689 and 3,648 cm−1 were attributed to inner and outer hydroxyl stretching of Mg–OH, respectively. The weak and broad band centered around 3,416 cm−1 was assigned due to the stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules while three bands at 1076, 1022 and 968 cm−1 were prescribed to the vibrations of the SiO4 tetrahedra.
Authors:Tassiane Matsubara, Mitiko Saiki, and Guilherme Zahn
In recent years, environmental concerns regarding antimony have grown considerably due to anthropogenic processes that have
resulted in increasing concentration of Sb in the environment, and also because of its impacts and possible adverse effects
to living organisms. Several techniques have been used, to obtain reliable results for Sb, since Sb is present at low level
concentration, requiring analytical instrumentation with low detection limits. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique
has a high metrological level for the determination of several elements in different matrices. However, Sb determination in
environmental and biological samples presents some analytical difficulties due to its low concentrations and gamma ray spectrum
interferences. The objective of this research was to study on Sb determination in environmental reference materials by NAA.
Ten environmental reference materials were selected and analyzed using long period irradiation at IEA-R1 research nuclear
reactor. The induced gamma activities of 122Sb and 124Sb were measured. Relative errors of the results demonstrated that the accuracy depends mainly on Sb radioisotope measured,
the decay time for counting and the sample composition.
Authors:Cibele Zamboni, Laura Oliveira, Luciana Kovacs, and Sabrina Metairon
In this study the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique was applied to determine Ca and Mg in whole blood from inhabitants
of Brazil for the purpose of establishing concentration ranges indicative of sex and age. The initiative to perform these
measurements is related to the increase in heart disease. According to recent statistics from WHO, the average is one death
due to heart attack in Brazil, every five minutes. The measures were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers,
non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. A healthy group constituted of male (n = 94) and female (n = 84) blood donors, ages between 18 and 70 years and above 50 kg, was selected from the blood banks and hematological laboratories
of Brazil. The influence of sex was also investigated considering several age ranges (18–29, 30–40, 41–50, >50 years). The
results show significant differences when a comparison is made by sex and age and may be useful to identify or prevent clinical
diseases. These results emphasize the need to perform periodic evaluation of Ca and Mg in blood.
Authors:Cibele Zamboni, Sabrina Metairon, Laura Oliveira, Simone Simons, A. Chudzinski-Tavassi, and Daniella Oliveira
The determination of elemental concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Sr, and Zn in blood samples from White New
Zealand rabbits was performed applying the NAA technique. Twenty whole blood samples (12 male and 8 female) collected in research
centers from Brazil (Aggeu Magalhães in Recife and Butantan Institute in São Paulo) were investigated, using the IEA-R1 nuclear
reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data can be used as references to perform biochemistry analyses in veterinary medicine
using small quantities of whole blood (100–400 μL), simplifying the collection and the preparation of biological samples (it
is not necessary to perform the serum separation nor to use specific reactants). Furthermore, the knowledge of the biochemical
values in blood allows us to check the similarities with the blood estimations in human beings, which is an important condition
for selecting laboratory animals. Finally, these data suggest a great similarity of the inorganic tissue profile of rabbits
(White New Zealand) and humans.