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The aim of this work is to evaluate a relation between the amount of energy dissipated per unit volume of soil by a vibratory compaction and an actual measure of improvement, i.e. increase in the cone stress and sleeve friction for different soil types. The work consists of a well-documented case history of a recently completed densification project, where a total of approximately one million m 3 of loose dredged hydraulic fill was vibro compacted against liquefaction. A strict and comprehensive quality control program was pursued in the Project. The successful execution of works illustrates the effectiveness of the selected method.

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Investigation of lipid peroxidation as a method of quality control in the food industry requires a simple, fast and reproducible method. The preliminary results about an intensive test are presented. Interaction of oil samples and air is intensified by using a piece of filter paper fitting exactly into the bottom of a laboratory vessel as a support. At elevated temperatures (50–55 °C) generated by infrared light the rate of lipid peroxidation is much increased. The test can be carried out in a one-pot-system. The use of this intensive test is advantageous in studying of the effect of metal salts on lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that this intensive test can be made suitable for the study of different effects and for screening chemical agents, especially that of new antioxidants.

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Isoflavones are phenolic compounds present in soybean and other legumes, which have attracted considerable attention because of various health effects associated with their bioactive properties. From twelve isoflavones known in soybean, nine are present in a glycoside form, whereas health effects are mainly attributed to the aglycones daidzein, genistein and glycitein. While most analytical methods focus either on total isoflavone content before hydrolysis or on isoflavone aglycones after hydrolysis, a two-step analytical procedure using HPLC separation and UV detection has been applied to detect both the isoflavone glycosides naturally present in soybean as well as their aglycones after acid hydrolysis. Five soybean genotypes of early maturity groups have been grown in the east of Austria in two climatically contrasting seasons, and seed samples were analysed for isoflavones. Total isoflavone concentrations of the soybean samples determined before and after hydrolysis ranged from 258–1137 μg/g and from 140–748 μg/g, respectively. For most isoflavones analysed, differences were statistically significant both for genotypes and growing seasons. The results suggest that the analytical procedure applied is useful both for selection of high isoflavone soybean genotypes as well as in quality control, particularly in view of isoflavone bioavailability.

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Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) involves replacing an egg’s nucleus with the nucleus of an adult cell (or that derived from an embryo or foetus) to be cloned, and then activating the egg’s further development without fertilisation.Provided that unhealthy clones would be detected at veterinary inspection and quality controls and thus be prevented from entering the food chain, the currently available data indicate that food products from clones of cattle and pigs and their progeny are as safe as food products of livestock derived by conventional breeding. None of the available studies have identified any differences outside the normal variability in the composition of meat (cattle and swine) and milk (cattle) between clones or clone progeny, and their comparators. After years of study and analysis it has been concluded that meat and milk from clones of cattle, swine and goats and the offspring of clones from species traditionally consumed as food, are as safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. Doubts have been expressed whether the current situation regarding the welfare and health of animal clones is ethically justified by the existing arguments in support of cloning for food.

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Moisture-content is one of the most significant properties to determine quality of carrot during storage. The optical measurement methods of moisture content promise non-destructive, non-contact and fast solution for quality control, for monitoring quality changes during storage and also for real-time classification tasks.The high absorption coefficient of water makes NIR analysers a commonly used tool for accurate moisture analysis. Hyperspectral system is able to detect the spatial distribution of reflectance spectrum as well. In case of finding correlation between the moisture-content of carrot and the reflectance spectral data, a hyperspectral system would be suitable for testing quality.Experiments were made to investigate spectral changes of different cultivars and different tissues of carrot stored under different conditions. Moisture-decrease of pieces and also the spectral data of carrot slices were recorded. Statistical analysis of the data has shown the optimal intensity function to describe moisture-content. Eliminating homogeneous spectral changes caused by destructed tissues, only a narrow interval of NIR range was sensitive to the moisture-decrease of xylem tissues.The equipment and the measurement procedure were able to identify carrot tissues and detect their changes during drying. For non-destructive applications of the system, further experiments are needed to inspect the behaviour of rhizodermis.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: H. Hampikyan, E.B. Bingol, H. Colak, O. Cetin, and B. Bingol

Ochratoxin A, is a well-known nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by some species of mould genera such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. under various environmental conditions, such as moisture and temperature. The main sources of Ochratoxin A intake for humans are cereals and cereal derived products, when they are consumed in large quantities, as in the case of breakfast cereals and cereal based baby foods principally consumed by babies. In this study, a total of 150 samples (50 infant formulas, 50 follow-on formulas, and 50 cereal based supplementary foods for infants and children) were obtained randomly from various supermarkets and pharmacies in Istanbul, and 52 out of 150 (34.7%) analysed samples were contaminated with Ochratoxin A. None of the examined baby food samples were above the Turkish Food Codex maximum limit of Ochratoxin A in baby, infant, and young children foods (0.5 μg kg−1). These results reinforce the idea of strict and routine quality controls and good hygiene practices have to be performed in every step of production to minimize the potential risk of Ochratoxin A contamination.

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Andersen , E.S. (1994): The evaluation of credence goods: A transaction approach to product specification and quality control . MAPP Working paper. No. 21. The Aarhus School of Business. pp. 6

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, E., Carbonell, I., Tárrega, A. & Bayarri, S. (2010): Sensory quality control of fresh produce. -in: Kilcast, D. (Ed.) Sensory analysis for food and beverage quality control . Woodhead, Cambridge, pp. 276

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– 37 . K ELLER , V. ( 2006 ): French experiences and results regarding foodstuffs with protected geographical origin. XV . Food Quality Control Scientific Conference

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fermentation 1971 Ranganna, S. (1986): Handbook of analysis of quality control for fruit and vegetable products

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