In this study, the validity of the effective (virtual) point-detector concept for the CdZnTe (CZT) detector for disc-shaped
radioisotope sources has been investigated in the photon energy range of 50–662 keV. It has been found that the virtual point-detector
model is valid for conventional CZT detectors. The photon energy dependence of the virtual interaction depth (VID) in the
CZT detector does not seem to fit to a good trend. However, in general, the measured VID values are increasing with increasing
γ-ray energy in the range of 50–662 keV, but the VID values always remain within the physical thickness of the CZT detector.
For instance, the VID value was measured to be about 4.4±0.5 mm in the 5 mm thick CZT detector at 662 keV γ-ray energy. In
application, the VID values for photons can be used for efficiency calculation models by scaling the measured detection efficiency
as a function of energy and source-to-detector distance.
Authors:Hildrun Kretschmer, Liang Liming, and Ramesh Kundra
The growing importance of collaboration in research and the still underdeveloped state-of-the-art of research on collaboration
have encouraged scientists from16 countries to establish a global interdisciplinary research network under the title “Collaboration
in Science and in Technology” (COLLNET)with Berlin as its virtual centre which has been set up on January 1st, 2000.The network
is to comprise the prominent scientists, who work at present mostly in the field of quantitative science studies. The intention
is to work together in co-operation both on theoretical and applied aspects.
The structures, or architectural forms, can be very various. They are independent both as to text and tune, are inconcievable by lyrics or melody taken separately, have nothing to do with the conscious intention or representation of the singers themselves, and are spontaneously actualized during the singing. Due to such immaterial structuring possibilities, and using only the formal possibilities of the syntagmatic, in Romanian traditional/folk singing a single poetic text can receive 64 formal treatments/versions. For establishing the existence of these architectural variants I have started from observations such as the one belonging to Bartók, who noticed that Romanians had the peculiarity of singing the same verse four times. Other observations spoke about tree times repetitions of each verse, while in someother circumstances verses are repeated just once. If we logically establish all possible forms of sytagmatic repetitions we obtain this sum of 64 variants, which constitute the equally real and virtual being of each and any folk song. These structures and architectures were very important to the old, traditional/peasant aesthetics, and their actualization was essential espetially to ceremonial repertories such as Winter-Solstice-Songs (carols). By giving up devices such as verse repetition and stanzaic refrains, and by shortening the time for performing the epic songs of the peasant carol, what was lost was the immaterial aspect of unconscious constructing, the abysmal pleasure for implied mathematics, was lost one of the essences of the sacred experience, which is -as philosophers put it - 'experiencing the Number'.
Authors:Mária Szenes, Gyöngyi Nagy, Edit Gyömbér, Bettina Girán, Tünde Fischer, Zoltán Völgyi, and Beáta Gasztonyi
Royster, A. P., Fenlon, H. M., Clarke, P. D. és mtsai:
CT colonoscopy of colorectal neoplasms: two-dimensional and three-dimensional virtual reality techniques with colonoscopic correlation. Am. J. Roentgenol., 1997,
In the present paper a Hungarian Krishna devotee’s attitude towards Christianity is being scrutinized. It is postuleted that the devotee’s re-interpretation of Christian doctrines of faith can be regarded as an aim of inculturation which is in accordance with his religious community’s main principles. The temporary virtual communities formed by readers leaving comments are also included in the analysis.
Authors:Varun Barthwal, M.M.S. Rauthan, and Rohan Varma
to achieve effective VM scheduling and placement. This paper reviews different areas of literature that deal with the Virtual Machines (VMs) placement onto physical machines (PMs). This survey aims to identify and classify research done in the area of
Variation of virtual point detector (VPD) position inside HPGe detector as a function of source photon energy for the energy
range from 26.6 to 1,332 keV was investigated. Although VPD concept was well established for HPGe detectors from 59.5 to 10 MeV,
a new attempt was made to obtain VPD positions for photon energies below 59.5 keV. It was found that VPD position shows different
functional behavior for the energy ranges 26.6–59.5 keV and 59.5–1,332 keV. The VPD position decreases with increasing energy
for 26.6, 31.7, 36.4, and 37.3 keV and increases with the energy until it reaches a plateau. The functional behavior of VPD
position for the energy range 26.6–59.5 keV was attributed to the dead layer thickness of the Ge crystal. Monte Carlo simulations
were performed to investigate the behavior of VPD position with various dead layer thickness ranging from 100 to 800 μm. It
was seen that VPD position increases with increasing energy for 31.7, 59.5, and 80.1 keV more significant at relatively lower
energies, but constant for the energies 661–1,332 keV.
Authors:Daniel L. King, Alex Russell, Sally Gainsbury, Paul H. Delfabbro, and Nerilee Hing
play design, and enable players to invest real money in exchange for virtual credits that can be won or lost. These activities, therefore, blur the line between gaming and gambling, but fundamentally evade legal definition as a gambling activity due to
The article is based on
Diószegi's studies of traditional shamans in the mid-20th century and the
modern case study of “a female shaman without a drum”, a specific history of
the transformation of traditional professional Sagai shamanism in Soviet and Post-Soviet
Russia is provided. Unique materials are illustrated, shamanic perceptions and
religious practices of old woman Tadyare analysed.
Phubbing can be described as an individual looking at his or her mobile phone during a conversation with other individuals, dealing with the mobile phone and escaping from interpersonal communication. In this research, determinants of phubbing behavior were investigated; in addition, the effects of gender, smart phone ownership and social media membership were tested as moderators.
To examine the cause–effect relations among the variables of the theoretical model, the research employs a correlational design. Participants were 409 university students who were selected via random sampling. Phubbing was obtained via the scales featuring mobile phone addiction, SMS addiction, internet addiction, social media addiction and game addiction. The obtained data were analyzed using a correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation model.
The results showed that the most important determinants of phubbing behavior are mobile phone, SMS, social media and internet addictions.
Although the findings show that the highest correlation value explaining phubbing is a mobile phone addiction, the other correlation values reflect a dependency on the phone.
There is an increasing tendency towards mobile phone use, and this tendency prepares the basis of phubbing.