The purpose of social co-ordination mechanisms is to co-ordinate the activities of individuals and organisations specialised in the distribution of work. The paper reviews five basic types of mechanisms: market, bureaucratic, ethical, aggressive and co-operative co-ordination. Today’s world operates on the basis of a duality: international cooperation is based on nation states, in which the public administrations work according to bureaucratic coordination. However, the increasingly globalised market responds to the logic of market coordination. The article argues that in terms of understanding the working of public administration, the various coordination mechanisms are of crucial importance, especially where various mechanisms meet, such as the relationship between nation states and multinational corporations.
The task of economics is apparently changing. After confronting the limits to growth, the economic interests, methods and thoughts, even its use of words and concepts are slowly but persistently modified. The discussion of “equilibrium” is replaced by the concern for a “sustainable path”. Instead of finding out how to produce “more” it looks for “better”, “cheaper” and “recyclable” commodities. Labor saving serves by and large the reduction of the working week and transformation of the life-cycle instead of surplus-production. The markets of developed countries are more easily glutted and their recessions deeper. The ever louder and more aggressive marketing attests to all this. It is high time to renew our old ways, to revisit the aged analytical and forecasting models. The renovation of obsolete concepts is rendered necessary to facilitate the introduction of an orderly and planned future of prudence. This investigation focuses less on the seldom, perhaps never occupied point of equilibrium, rather on the behavior and motion of the economic systems in its vicinity.
The free nature of the Internet is said to have been lost to business interest. The author contests this claim by showing that the overall non-profit character of the net may have been limited but certainly not yet compromised. The best stuff on the Web is still available but hidden behind error messages, unlisted databases, and little-known links. Most of cyberspace is still open for educated research, and serendipity. Valuable content may remain free as long as the emerging online business communication keeps on offering us an attractive compromise in matters of our time-use while on the net. This is a tacit give and take but the outcome belongs to the core drivers of the new economy. Online marketing and commerce proceed on a market of clicks not just users mouse clicks but also the clicks of third party meters counting time; adding up to statistical profiles; and measuring user behaviour. Advertising can help cyberspace remain toll free by compromising netizens time but offering something in return for using their personally identifiable data in business operations. I will track these innovations to the extent of understanding them and will give an evaluation from the perspective of how force-fed or interruptive they are. There are intriguing new initiatives to render commercials less aggressive and more relevant, more predicated on permission and even more dependent on bandwidth. These targeting initiatives promise the demise of the mass culture of advertising as we know it, helping commercial messages evolve into personalised and customised individual knowledge management for opting-in netizens. This endeavour is part of a wider project to understand further the phenomena of the emerging „Gratis Economy”. In this study, I will focus on marketing solutions where freeware is part of a wider revenue model or product selling strategy mix.
. Potentially risky members of selected MNEs in the Czech Republic are identified and the setup of these members' transfer prices is assessed. 2 Literature review One should distinguish between tax planning, aggressive tax planning and tax evasion, even though