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harzianum: Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the interaction . Phytopathology 86 , 405 – 416 . Benítez , T. , Rincón , A. M. , Limón , M. C. and Codón , A. C. ( 2004 ): Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains . Int. Microbiol

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preparation and formulation on survival and biocontrol efficiency of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Y.J. Appl. Microbiol. 86 :108–116. O’Gara F. Effect of inoculum preparation and

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bacteria mainly by using the native microbiota of the product of interest ( Oliveira et al., 2015 ). However, biocontrol can also be applied as an alternative cleaning and/or disinfection practice ( Vandini et al., 2014 ; Gray et al., 2018 ) as well. As

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76 60 65 Chet, I. (1987): Trichoderma application, mode of action and potential as a biocontrol agent of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. In

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Baker, R. and Dickman, M. B. (1993): Biocontrol with fungi. - In: Blaine Metting, F. Jr. (ed.): Soil microbial ecology - application in agricultural and environmental management. Marcer Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 27

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60 575 581 Stephan, D., Schmitt, A., Carvalho, S.M., Seddon, B. and Koch, E. (2005): Evaluation of biocontrol preparations and plant extracts for

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: L. Kredics, Zsuzsanna Antal, A. Szekeres, L. Hatvani, L. Manczinger, Cs. Vágvölgyi, and Erzsébet Nagy

Elad, Y., Kapat, A.: The role of Trichoderma harzianum protease in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Eur J Plant Pathol 105 , 177-189 (1999). The role of Trichoderma harzianum protease in the biocontrol of Botrytis

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The surplus of waste glycerol, by-product of the biodiesel production process, is available at the global market. Some species of the genera Streptomyces have the ability to assimilate glycerol and convert it into valuable metabolic products. In the present study, the ability of Streptomyces hygroscopicus to assimilate waste glycerol and convert it into metabolic compounds with antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi obtained from apple fruit samples expressing rot symptoms, was investigated. Production of antifungal metabolites by S. hygroscopicus was carried out in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor through 7 days. Fermentation was carried out at 27 °C with aeration rate of 1.5 vvm and agitation rate of 100 r.p.m. The aim of this work was to analyse bioprocess parameters and to determine at which stage of bioprocess the production of antifungal metabolites occurs. Activity of the cultivation liquid on two isolates of Alternaria alternata and two isolates of Fusarium avenaceum were determined every 12 h using in vitro well diffusion method. It was found that the maximum production of antifungal metabolites occurred at 108 hour of cultivation. Formed inhibition zones have shown that the produced antifungal metabolites have high efficacy on tested phytopathogenic fungi (inhibition zone diameter higher than 35 mm for all test organisms).

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Species of the family Signiphoridae (Chalcidoidea) are primarily hyperparasitoids associated with scale insects, whiteflies and mealybugs through other Chalcidoidea; however, certain species are primary parasitoids of these hosts. Recent collections and a review of the literature indicate that the following five species of the family Signiphoridae are known to occur in Egypt: Chartocerus niger (Ashmead), Chartocerus subaeneus (Főrster), Signiphora fax Girault, Thysanus sp. and Signiphora flavella Girault, the latter newly recorded in Egypt and Palearctic region. A key to the Egyptian signiphorid species is included.

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Trichoderma sp. capable of chestnut blight biocontrol. FEMS Microbiol Lett 126 , 249 (1995). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting identifies subgroups of Trichoderma viride and other Trichoderma sp. capable of

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