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References Aciksoz , S.B. , Yazici , A. , Ozturk , L. , Cakmak , I. 2011 . Biofortification of wheat with iron through soil and foliar application of

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, and Szilvia Veres

, J. L. , Tovey , M. , Tucker , M. , White , P. J. , Young , S. D. , Zhao , F.-J. ( 2010 ) Selenium biofortification of highyielding winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by liquid or granular Se fertilisation . Plant. Soil. 332 , 5 – 18

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. Kutman , U.B. , Yildiz , B. , Ozturk , L. , Cakmak , I. 2010 . Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen . Cereal Chem . 87 : 1 – 9

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96 Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification. Plant Soil 302 :1–17. Cakmak I

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Abstract  

An extensive investigation of elemental levels in cereals and their cultivation soils has been going on across the main production areas of mainland Portugal, with a view to an eventual biofortification of major cultivars through agronomic practices. Cereals are an obvious choice as primary vehicles for food-supplementation programs, especially in countries where they definitely weigh in the dietary intake (like Portugal), and regions whose geographical and/or pedological features may account for nutrient deficiencies in typical diets. Mature rye plants (Secale cereale L.; roots and grains) and local soils were collected in the summer of 2009 from two regions of northern Portugal, and put through k 0-standardized, instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0-INAA). Overall, the results (elemental concentrations, enrichment factors, transfer coefficients) seem to confirm an efficient uptake of elements from soil and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants, notably to the ones that really matter in human nutrition (grains).

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. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification?. Plant Soil 302 :1–17. Cakmak I Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification

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To investigate the nutritional characteristics of purple wheat, 41 kinds of nutrients were measured in seven purple wheat lines using one white wheat variety as control sample. Correlation analysis of nutrient contents was performed. Results show that the amounts of 40 kinds of nutrients in the purple wheat lines are higher than those of the control. For example, the amounts of sodium (Na) and manganese (Mn) in purple wheat are higher than the standards by 311.77–2017.65% and 548.15–733.33%, respectively; the contents of β + γ-vitamin E is higher than the standards by 300%; and zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are all higher than the control by 100%. Therefore, the purple wheat has obvious advantages in terms of the nutrient contents. Correlation analysis studies show that protein has significant positive correlations with Glu, Mo, Pro, Fe, Tyr and Ile. Anthocyanin has significant positive correlations with Mo and Glu, and significant negative correlations with free Trp and Ca. Carotenoid has significant positive correlations with His, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and I, and significant negative correlations with Ca. This paper is a first report on comprehensive nutrients of several purple wheat lines. Our results suggest that purple wheat is rich in nutrients and there are many significant correlations among different nutrients. The valuable information is very useful in biofortification breeding and functional food development.

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biofortification? Plant Soil 302 :1–17. Alloway B.J. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. IZA Publications. International Zinc Association, Brussels, The Netherlands. Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of

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. , B rutnell , T. , K andianis , C.B. , …. & B uckler , E.S. ( 2008 ): Natural genetic variation in lycopene epsilon cyclise tapped for maize biofortification . Science , 319 , 330 – 333

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. , Takahashi , R. , Nakanishi , H. , Nishizawa , N.K. 2013 . The road to micronutrient biofortification of rice: progress and prospects . Front. Plant Sci. 4 : 15 . Bhullar

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