Ruler of fortune or gracious patron?
The fragments of a very fragmentary inscribed tombstone depicting an armed knight were found in the one-time Cistercian monastery of Pilis at Pilisszentkereszt (Pest county) during László Gerevich’s excavations (1967–1982). As certain fragments were uncovered in the debris heaped in the shaft of grave no. 59 in the centre of the chapter-house, the tombstone was associated with this grave (L. Gerevich). The man lying in the grave was identified as Robert de Courtenay (†1228), Andrew II’s wife Yolande de Courtenay’s brother, who was elected Byzantine Latin emperor then he was expelled and died at an unknown place (I. Takács).The author reviews the finding circumstances of the fragments and determines from radiocarbon measurements that there could be no direct contact between the late medieval body found in the centrally placed grave no. 59 of the chapter-house and the tombstone. The arguments that were raised to link the tombstone with Robert de Courtenay are not acceptable either: if he was ever buried in the medieval Hungary, his grave could rather be in the Cistercian monastery of Egres (to date Agriş, Romania) where Yolande de Courtenay was also buried. A secular nobleman must have been buried under the Pilis tombstone who could play an important role in the establishment of the monastery in the 13
century and who is called
(the most eminent of comites) in the very fragmentary inscription. There are no realistic data that would suggest that the pit of a heart burial was beside grave no. 59 in Pilis as it is suggested in the archaeological literature. This feature must have had a different function in the centre of the chapter-house (foundation of a
in an anonymous place?” About the burial fate of (unchristened) stillborn children]. Rheinisches Jahrbuch für Volkskunde , 34, 29–48.
“Bestattet am anonymen Ort”? Zum Begräbnisschicksal von (ungetauften
Jelen tanulmány a Bonyhádtól (Tolna megye) északra fekvő Szöcske-szántók dűlőben talált kora avar korra keltezhető, viszonylag gazdag melléklettel bíró sírnak és mellékleteinek a leírását tartalmazza. A temetkezés idejét a sírból előkerült leletek alapján a kora avar korra, a 6. század végére – 7. század elejére lehet tenni. A leletegyüttesben a tarsolyzáróként szolgáló egykori bizánci füstölőhöz tartozó elem és az ezüstcsésze a Balkán bizánci térségéből, egy kirabolt templom felszereléséből származhat és egy olyan személy leletegyütteséhez tartozhatott, aki maga is részt vett az avarok balkáni hadjárataiban, vagy ilyen személyekkel kapcsolatban állt.
Presented and discussed here is a burial with a relatively rich array of grave goods dating from the Early Avar period found in an area known as Szöcske-szántók lying north of Bonyhád (County Tolna). On the testimony of the finds recovered from the burial, the grave can be assigned to the Early Avar period, to the late 6th–early 7th century. An element taken from a Byzantine censer that was repurposed to serve as a purse clasp and the silver bowl obviously originated from a looted church in Byzantium’s Balkanic province and were the possessions of a person who had participated in the Avars’ Balkanic campaigns or who had contact with these individuals.
Authors:T. Devièse, M. Colombini, M. Regert, B. Stuart, and J. Guerbois
The use of thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry (TGMS) to study the state of preservation of archaeological bones
has been investigated. As part of a collaborative multi-analytical study, bones exhumed from graves of the late Roman period
in France and Italy were examined. A decrease in organic matter for the archaeological bones compared to that for new bone
was confirmed, demonstrating that diagenesis of aged bones can be detected using TGMS. Different amounts of collagen were
determined for bones from different graves and could, for the majority of specimens, be correlated with the visually observed
This pape discusses the use, of stable Cs as an activatable tracer for measuring performance of plant root intrusion barriers for solid waste disposal site cover systems. Experiments conducted at small-scale demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the technique and suggest that the methodology has application to a better understanding of plant root ecology.
In recent decades, especially in German language areas, several monographs and studies have stressed the source value in political and social history of the representative relics of burial places and sepulchral art. The resting places of Hungarian aristocrats of the early modern age are also more than mere (style historical, iconographic) sources of “traditional” art historical investigations, as is also pointed out by several recent scientific works in Hungary.
Lord Chief Justice Ferenc III Nádasdy (1623–1671) had the Nádasdy family mausoleum built in Léka (Lockenhaus, Austria). The converted aristocrat commissioned Pietro Orsolino, master builder from Siena, to erect a church and monastery for the Augustinian hermits and the population of the small Transdanubian village. The innovation of the crypt completed in 1669 lies in admitting solely the remains of the Nádasdy family members according to the original concept of the chief justice, thus becoming the first family mausoleum in the crypt of a church running the whole length of the church space.
When Ferenc Nádasdy was executed for his part in the Wesselényi conspiracy against the court in Vienna in 1671, there were two tombs in the central space of the crypt to which an ornamental staircase led from the middle of the nave of the oval church. The chief justice had the double tomb (c. 1562) of his great grandparents palatine Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsay – an outstanding specimen of 16th century Hungarian sepulchral art – transferred from the chapel of Léka castle. The tomb is covered with a late gothic slab showing the palatine and his wife kneeling at the stem of the cross. The monumental baroque tomb of Ferenc Nádasdy and his wife Anna Julianna Esterházy (c. 1669) was probably made by masters of the Léka guild of builders and masons.
Research of the past years has shown that extensively travelled and highly cultured Ferenc Nádasdy was one of the most conscious aristocratic patrons of the art in Hungary who put the arts sharp-wittedly in the service of his own representation and the political propaganda of the Hungarian Kingdom. In his residences (Keresztúr, Sárvár, Seibersdorf, Pottendorf) he set up picture galleries with different representative goals each; as the holder of the advowson, he had churches (Lorettom, Léka) and chapels (Mariazell, St Stephen’s chapel) founded and ordered altar paintings. He relied on printing to disseminate internationally the historical continuity of the Hungarian statehood threatened by the Ottoman Empire (Mausoleum) and the unity of the Hungarian nation of the estates (series of Widemann portraits).
The crypt of the Léka church was the place of the reverence of ancestors and the expression of Ferenc Nádasdy’s ambition to become palatine. By positioning his and his wife’s tomb opposite his great-grandfather’s in the crypt he founded, he implied his wish to become similar to his forefather. During his political career he failed to acquire the title of palatine, but the “adopter” of the art patron model created by Nádasdy, his brother-in-law Pál Esterházy attained it. Similarly to Nádasdy, Esterházy also had a family crypt built later in the centre of his residence Kismarton (Eisenstadt, Austria) emulating in concept the example of Léka and the Graz mausoleum of Ferdinand II as regards form.
numbered continuously, the numbers of the graves and the grave ditches are the numbers given to the features at the excavations. The graves were not given new numbers in the publication. Characters A-B-C are added to the numbers if the burials were in