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multiplicity of carbonate species decompose on heating. Fig. 4 Thermal analysis of Fort Sumter National Monument, casemate A18 mortar circa 1850 The twin CO 2 evolutions at 654.6 and

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hydroxyl and carbonate species from the precipitation medium gives the real composition of the precursors. Evolved gas analysis provides additional information referring to the processes that occur during the conversion of the precursors

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2 at low temperatures, and carbonate species were transformed to stable formate species by hydrogenation which are then reduced to methoxy [ 37 ] and further hydrogenated to methanol. On the other hand, Fujitani et al. [ 38 ], who worked on the Pd

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activation with the help of CeO 2 or ZrO 2 promoters. The amount of oxygen vacancies on CeO 2 and/or ZrO 2 surfaces has been reported to be related to the extent of CO 2 activation by easily forming formate and carbonate species [ 12 , 13 ]. The

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Soipatta Soisuwan, Benjamas Netiworaruksa, Channarong Charoendechanukor, Tassanee Tubcharoen, Joongjai Panpranot, and Piyasan Praserthdam

, it can react with water and carbon dioxide in air to form hydroxide and carbonate species. The lanthanum oxide might degrade to LaO(OH) during the preparation of Co/La 2 O 3 catalyst and resulted in the formation of cobalt lanthanum compound. The

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calcination which are assigned to hydrogen bonded O–H out of plane bending [ 34 ]. These bands almost vanish after annealing. Strong bands in the region 1200–1700 cm −1 with small shoulders are seen in all as prepared samples A–E and assigned to carbonate

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higher temperature treatment could lead to more efficient removal of the carbonate species which can block the active sites on the surface of CP catalysts. It is generally accepted that the catalytic activity of gold is size dependent, being

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Sergei N. Danilchenko, Aleksei N. Kalinkevich, Roman A. Moskalenko, Vladimir N. Kuznetsov, Aleksandr V. Kochenko, Evgenia V. Husak, Vadim V. Starikov, Fuyan Liu, Junhu Meng, and Jinjun Lü

. Our results show that there is a potential for the development of new methods to analyze thermal transformation of bioapatite and migration of the ions and groups including partial elimination of carbonate species. Further investigation is required in

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