Authors:F. Nocente, L. Sereni, A. Matere, and M. Pasquini
., Gazza, L., Pasquini, M. 2008. Resistance gene pyramiding in commonwheat as a strategy to control rust diseases. In: Proc. 18th Eucarpia General Congress: Modern Variety Breeding for Present and Future Needs. Valencia, Spain, 9–12 September 2008, pp. 445
Authors:M. Jiang, Z.Q. Xaio, S.L. Fu, and Z.X. Tang
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can reveal minor structural differences of chromosomes. The karyotype of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on FISH pattern is seldom reported. In this study, non-denaturing FISH (ND-FISH) using Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 and (AAG)6 as probes was used to investigate the chromosomal structure of 85 common wheat including 83 wheat-rye 1RS.1BL translocation cultivars/lines, a wheatrye 1RS.1AL translocation cultivar Amigo and Chinese Spring (CS). Two, three, two, three, six, three and four structural types respectively for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A and 7A chromosomes were observed. Two, eight, two, two, four and six types of chromosome for 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B and 7B were respectively detected. The structure of 1B chromosomes in Amigo and CS is different. Five, two, two and two types of chromosomal structure respectively for 1D, 2D, 3D and 5D were distinguished. Polymorphisms of 1RS.1BL, 4D, 6D and 7D chromosomes were not detected. Chromosomes 1AI, 2AI, 3AI, 4AI, 5AIII, 6AI, 7AIII, 2BI, 3BV, 4BI, 5BII, 6BIII, 7BI, 1DIV, 2DI, 3DI and 5DII appeared in these 85 wheat cultivars/lines at high frequency. Each of the 85 wheat cultivars/lines has a unique karyotype. Amigo is a complex translocation cultivar. The FISH karyotype of wheat chromosomes built in this study provide a reference for the future analyzing wheat genetic stocks and help to learn structural variations of wheat chromosomes. In addition, the results in this study indicate that oligonucleotide probes and ND-FISH technology can be used to identify individual wheat cultivar.
A new enzyme-encoding gene set,
, is reported for common wheat. These genes, orthologous to
, encode electrophoretically fast acid phosphatases. The electrophoretic phenotype of
Authors:Y.P. Jing, D.T. Liu, X.R. Yu, F. Xiong, D.L. Li, Y.K. Zheng, Y.F. Hao, Y.J. Gu, and Z. Wang
The objective of the present study was to understand the developmental regularity of wheat endosperm cells at different Days After Pollination (DAP) using microscopic and histochemical methods. Resin semi-thin sections of the endosperm and the enzymatically dissociated Starchy Endosperm Cells (SECs) were observed under a light microscope. The results showed that: (1) SECs were irregular-shaped and had two types of starch granules: large oval-shaped A-type starch granules and small spherical B-type starch granules. (2) The growth shape of SECs was referred to as S-curve and the fastest cell growth period was at 16–24 DAP. (3) The largest increase and growth of A-type starch granules were mainly at 4–16 DAP. B-type starch granules increased rapidly after 16 DAP and made up over 90% of the total starch granules in SEC during the late stage of endosperm development. (4) The nuclei of SEC deformed and degenerated during the middle and late stages of endosperm development and eventually disappeared. However, starch granules still increased and grew after the cell nuclei had degenerated. The investigations showed the development regularity of starch endosperm cells and starch granules, thereby improving the understanding of wheat endosperm development.