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Az előadás áttekintést ad a kreatív képességek mérésének módszereiről és az elmúlt fél évszázadban elért eredményeiről. Beszámol az agyféltekék funkcionális dominanciájának szerepéről a kreativitás vizsgálatában. Összefüggésbe hozza a standard idegrendszeri hálózatokat a gondolkodással. Az újabb kognitív idegtudományi kutatások eredményei alapján választ próbál adni arra a kérdésre, hogy mit csinál az idegrendszer akkor, amikor „nem csinálunk semmit”, és ez hol történik. Példát ad a perceptuális stílus, a személyiségsajátosságok és a kreatív produkció összefüggéséről. Bemutatja, hogy a REM-szakaszt is tartalmazó alvás hogyan „hasznosítja” a kreativitásfeladat megoldását segítő ingereket az ébredés után.

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A deductive classification was built for psychological roots of mutability in the sphere of art and culture, focused on two principal “archetypical” evolutionary ideas: progressive development and cyclic phenomena. To make the appropriate empirical investigations objective, due procedures of quantitative measurements were derived, based on the information approach. The main juxtaposition of “analytic” and “synthetic” mechanisms of the information processing occurred tightly connected with the prevalence of left- or right-hemispheric style of activity, respectively. According to the theoretical model, the entire socio-psychological life of society should show periodical “switches” between the above two types of stylistic prevalence. This mutability is correlated with changes of generations, hence it should possess the full period of oscillations of about 40-50 years. Besides, monotonous trends were predicted, i.e., the long-range “synthetic growth” (in each kind of art) needed to compensate the “analytic growth” in the entire socio-psychological life. Measurement of creativity of “key persons” which “made history” both in West-European and Russian art (e.g., 240 painters of the 14th-20th centuries, and 102 composers of the 17th-20th centuries) permitted to build evolutionary curves for architecture, music, painting, theatre staging, poetry, etc. The evolutionary dependences obtained characterize both separate features of each kind of art and its “index of asymmetry”. The results evidence in favor both of 50-year stylistic cycles and “due” monotonous trends in each of the spheres considered. The synchronism of the changes observed in different spheres confirms the theoretical prediction concerning the importance of the “general style” of the epoch. On the basis of appropriate statistical distributions, the degree of the “social determination” of creative processes was estimated, as well as the role of “free will” of a creative person.

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Abstract  

Margaret Atwood’s Lady Oracle is a novel extremely rich in Gothic resonances, making numerous approaches to the Gothicness of the book possible. My analysis will focus on the roots of protagonist Joan Foster’s fascination with the Gothic. What I intend to argue is that, in contrast with most analyses of the novel, the Gothic is present not only in the form of clichs which Joan (wrongfully) imposes on real people and real situations; in fact, it is not by mere chance that Joan turns to writing Costume Gothics in order to satisfy her desire for romance. The roots of her fascination with the genre lie with the two most influential people of her life: her mother Frances Delacourt and her surrogate mother Aunt Lou who educate her early into the female/maternal legacy of Gothic thinking which manifests itself in Joan’s views on all aspects of life: problems of selfhood, personal relationships as well as personal aspirations. Moreover, the fact that the Gothic permeates the lives and thoughts of all the significant female characters of the novel indicates that female existence as a whole is presented by Atwood as essentially and inevitably Gothic. I will pursue this line of argument by first discussing the significance of the two mother figures in Joan’s life as well as the process of Joan’s education into patterns of female existence that bear a striking resemblance to such patterns common enough in the Gothic. I will also show how the creative process of writing her Gothic novels as well as her “Lady Oracle” poems contributes to Joan’s understanding that the bonds that connect her with her mother are primarily bonds of love and not of hate as she thought before, and that under the disguise of apparent differences they do share whatever is essential about womanhood. It is through this realization that Joan can set herself free from the past – by coming to terms with it rather than discarding it – and may, thus, actually start working on her present.

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The oral folk prose of Transcarpathia is a valuable source of history and culture of the region. Supplementing the written sources, it has maintained popular attitudes towards events, giving assessments and interpretations that are often different from the official one. In the Ukrainian oral tradition, we find many words borrowed from other languages, in particular Hungarian, which reflects the long period of cohabitation as well as shared historical events and contacts. They also occur in local toponymic legends, which in their own way explain the origin of the local names and are closely linked with the life and culture of the region, contain a lot of ethnographic, historical, mythological, and other information. They are represented mainly by lexical borrowings, Hungarian proper names and realities, which were transformed, absorbed and modified in another system, and, among other things, has served the originality of the Transcarpathian folklore. The process of borrowing the Hungarianisms is marked by heterochronology and a significant degree of assimilation in the receiving environment.

It is known about the long-lasting contacts of the Hungarians with Rus at the time of birth of the homeland - the Honfoglalás, as evidenced by the current geographical names associated with the heroes of the events of that time - the leaders of uprisings Attila, Almash, Prince Latorets (the legends Almashivka, About the Laborets and the White Horse Mukachevo Castle). In the names of toponymic legends and writings there are mentions of the famous Hungarian leaders, the leaders of the uprisings - King Matthias Corvinus, Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II, Lajos Kossuth (the legends Matyashivka, Bovtsar, Koshutova riberiya). Many names of villages, castles and rivers originate from Hungarian lexemes and are their derivatives, explaining the name itself (narratives Sevlyuskyy castle, Gotar, village Gedfork). The times of the Tatar invasion were reflected in the legends The Great Ravine Bovdogovanya and The village Goronda. Sometimes, the nomination is made up of two words - Ukrainian and Hungarian (Mount Goverla, Canyon Grobtedie). In legends, one can find mythological and legendary elements.

The process of borrowing Hungarianisms into Ukrainian is marked by heterochronology, meanwhile borrowings remain unchanged only partially, and in general, they are assimilated in accordance with the phonetic and morphological rules of the Ukrainian language. Consequently, this is a creative process, caused by a number of different factors - social, ethnocultural, aesthetic, etc. In the course of time, events and characters in oral narratives are erased from human memory, so they can be mixed, modified and updated, adapting to new realities.

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Moholy-Nagy felfogása szerint a struktúra meghatározza a textúrát és determinálja a faktúra lehetőségeit. A mai építészet faktúradomináns tendenciáinak esztétikája számára azonban mintha ez az egymásra épülés már nem jelentene semmit. Ma a faktúra az, amiből textúra és struktúra is származtatható, s az anyag legfeljebb a megvalósítás időleges korlátait jelöli ki. Esztétikai értelemben mindez a neoavantgárd festészet és a textilművészet korábbi (egyoldalú) viszonyára emlékeztet, azzal a különbséggel, hogy a mai építészetben, ahol a képzőművészethez hasonlóan az univerzális utópiák dekonstrukciója folyik, már nem elég a puszta esztétikai intenció; filozófiai „belépőre” – kontextusra, reklámszókincsre – is szükség van. S ezt, illetve az ehhez szükséges fogalmakat az építészet elmélete sokszor a legújabb matematikai vagy filozófiai (tér)elméletekben, és többnyire az euklideszi geometrián kívül, véli felfedezni: topológiában, tendológiában, plektikában és másban. Kérdés, hogy az építészet – a konkrét, geometriailag ábrázolt formák megvalósítása esetében – kívül kerülhet-e az euklideszi geometria terén.

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Az ezredfordulón a szakrális terek értelmezésében új fogalmi megközelítésekkel találkozunk. Az egyház szerepének újraértékelése a globális gazdasági és társadalmi folyamatok mentén nagyon időszerű, melyet az új (vagy épp visszatekintő) térstruktúrák is leképeznek. Ugyanakkor vallásosságtól függetlenül is fontossá vált az egyén közösségben elfoglalt helyének meghatározása. A személyes létértelmezés e koncepciók mentén illeszthető a szakrális tér dimenzióiba – az építészeti megfogalmazás ennek definiálása „jelenidőben”. Az építészek a titkot keresik – a tér, a körülvevő határfelület és a rajta túlmutató szellemi közeg összhangzatában az „ábrázolt” jelenik meg. A térfelfogás változása a „communio” felől közelít, a közösség téri igényeinek leképezésére törekszik – de egyre nagyobb hangsúlyt fordít az egyén szerepére. A templom „köztér” – átmeneti hely az emberek alkotta világban. Anyaga van, kompozíciója jellemzi struktúráját, tapinthatósága a lét érzékelhetőségét nyilvánítja ki. A templomtér személyessége ma nem a könnyen értelmezhető szimbolikus jelekben nyilvánul meg, hanem a tér csendességében. Vizuális-esztétikai megközelítésben ez a tér kiüresítése felé mutat – ezzel helyet adva a szellemi telítődésnek. Nem tárgyi vonatkozásaiban értékelhető puritánságról szólnak e létidézetek, hanem a csend megfogalmazását biztosító alkotói folyamat komplexitásáról. A kritikai értékelés a szakrális tér építészeti megfogalmazásának eszközeit tárja fel konkrét megvalósult példák vonatkozásában. A bemutatásra kerülő tárgyobjektumok anyagszerűségük azonosságán túl azonban nagyon eltérő megnyilvánulásokat eredményeznek a szerkezetiség, az anyag adta felületminőség és az anyag újrafogalmazott (vagy újra alkalmazott) építési logikájából adódó hatás következményében. Egységében válik nyilvánvalóvá a titok.

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There is still much to be explored about the exact circumstances of the creation of Csontváry’s pictures and the painter’s working method. Research has either approached the oeuvre from the life path wrought with mythical elements, or wished to embed it in the context of 19th century painting tradition. From these angles, however, the consistently built visual logic of Csontváry’s pictures, their details governed by the inherent laws of the genre of painting are often overlooked.

The most adequate method of exploring Csontváry’s creative practice appears to be a thorough examination of the relation between the inspiring sight and the picture painted of it. I based this study on Csontváry’s landscapes painted between 1897 and 1905, first of all those painted in Trogir, Castellammare and Taormina. In the knowledge of these localities it can be established that the painter accurately followed the topographic sight and the conditions of light. At the same time, the comparison of the location and the painting has also revealed that the painter had pairs of pictures in mind in his intention to capture a sight systematically. Taking up a vantage point mostly in northsouth and one in east-west orientation, he created “panorama pictures” built of several elements. His paintings are similar to the 360° panoramas in photography. But while a rotating camera can take an infinite number of photos, the painter assembled the picture from two “shots”.

Conspicuously, the pairs of pictures depict different times of day: instead of momentary impressions and moods, Csontváry captured the path of the transmission of light and thereby the passing of time, an interval of time in the pairs of pictures. In his later compositions he was to apply these different light conditions in a single picture, framing as it were the daily path of the planet on the horizon. This practice is related to one of Csontváry’s key technical terms, the “Sun Path”.

By capturing the changing of light in one picture Csontváry wished to “perfect” the 19th century plein air technique. His “Sun Path” painting derives from a specific view of nature and the world, which was in polar opposition to the positivism of naturalism and the sensualism of impressionism. Proof of it is the pairs of pictures. They summarize all Csontváry’s observations of time and space, and their translation into the practice of painting.

The views conveyed by Csontváry’s paintings were often borrowed from contemporaneous picture postcards. Not only greeting cards but e.g. the rich moving picture and photo material of the programs of the Urania Hungarian Scientific Theatre inspired him. He treated the pictorial themes as visual tropes or conventions, but in the creative process he only used their fixed, symbolic form such as a typical cutting. When a theme was actually to be realized, he thought it indispensable to be on the site in person, to make sketches and paint on the spot. He did so to make the contents he found important in the symbol visible by his painting.

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Creatology from 1977 to 2007

The first thirty years of the new science of creativity

Society and Economy
Author: Istvan Magyari-Beck

Process . New York-Buffalo: Bearly Limited. Stein M. Making the Point. Anecdotes, Poems and Illustrations for the Creative Process

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team’s creative performance, defined as a team’s engagement in creative processes ( Shin & Eom, 2014 ). Furthermore, the effect of both team learning and team creativity on self-assessed team effectiveness is also investigated. Previous research

Open access

Mednik, S. A. (1962): The Associative Basis of the Creative Process. Psychological Review 69: 220–232. Mednik S. A. The Associative Basis of the Creative Process

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