Authors:Boussenane Nadia, Kebsa Wided, Boutabet Kheira, Rouibah Hassiba, Benguedouar Lamia, S. Rhouati, M. Alyane, A. Zellagui, and M. Lahouel
This paper reports an investigation of the ability of propolis extract (a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources) to restore the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ferulenol, a sesquiterpene prenylated coumarin derivative isolated from the plant
. We show that ferulenol was able to induce the permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. This effect is caused by the interaction of the compound with the mitochondrial respiratory chain, more particularly by the fall of membrane potential and the inhibition of complex II. We have previously demonstrated that this inhibition results from a limitation of electron transfers involved in the respiratory chain and initiated by the reduction of ubiquinone. We hypothesized that the protective effect of propolis could be due to a direct action on mitochondrial functions. So we have investigated
the mitochondrial effects of Algerian propolis using rat liver mitochondria, by analysing their effects on membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial swelling. We show that propolis extract was able to restore the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together these data reveal that propolis extract may be an interesting inhibitor of PTP and provide an additional mechanism by which the natural product propolis extract may restore the mitochondrial membrane potential and to prevent apoptotic process.
Authors:C. Battisti, E. Ukmar, L. Luiselli, and M. Bologna
Breeding bird communities were studied by line-transect in burnt pinewood and unburnt pinewoods, during three years subsequently to a fire event, in a coastal woodland of Mediterranean central Italy. We analyzed data following a diversity/dominance approach that ranks the species in order of their abundance, to obtain rank/abundance diagrams (‘Whittaker plots’). Although it is generally accepted that fire may induce structural changes in forest communities of breeding birds, we observed more evident effects when considering the assemblage of forest-specialist species. When considering the whole community of birds, ordinate intercepts of the regression between rank and relative abundance of species were not significantly different between unburnt and burnt plots in any of the three years of study. However, when considering only the forest-related species, there was a significant difference between unburnt and burnt plots in all the years of study. Evenness showed lower values that were explicited by the diversity/dominance diagrams (lower collocation of the curves of burnt pinewoods if compared to unburnt ones). Overall, the patterns observed in this study suggest that the effects of fire disturbance were more evident at the ecological level than at the taxonomic-level assemblages. The gradual decline of the more sensitive species due to fires and the proportional increase of edge/generalist species may induce a species turnover in burnt woods with cascade and relaxation effects which could be evidenced by diversity/dominance diagrams. Consequently, it is useful to separate the effects of fires at community-level and at assemblage-level when studying bird communities in areas subjected to fires.
Authors:Yvonne Anna Minar, Barbara Milz, and Bernd Spangenberg
We present a planar chromatographic separation method for the phytoestrogenic active compound equol, separated on RP-18 W (Merck, 1.14296) phase. It could be shown that an ethanolic cattle manure extract contains this phytoestrogenic active compound to a larger amount. As solvents for the mobile phase, hexane, ethyl acetate, and acetone (45:15:10, v/v); acetone and water (15:10, v/v); and n-hexane, CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate, methanol, and formic acid (40:40:20:5:1, v/v) have been used. After separation, a modified yeast estrogen screen (YES) test was applied, using the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ3505 containing an estrogen receptor. Its activation by equol induces the reporter gene lacZ which encodes the enzyme β-galactosidase. The enzyme activity is measured directly on the TLC plate by using the substrate MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) or the substrate X-β-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-β-d-galactopyranoside). β-Galactosidase cleaves MUG into a fluorescing compound. X-β- Gal is also hydrolyzed and then oxidized by oxygen forming the deep-blue dye 5,5′-dibromo-4,4′-dichloro-indigo. Both reactions in combination with a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) separation allow very specific detecting of equol in cattle manure, although that is a very challenging matrix. Preliminary results show that the average content of equol in liquid manure is roughly 60 μg g−1. The value for urine is 50 μg mL−1.
Authors:M. Gonzalez-Castro, L. Ordoñez-Acevedo, Y. Herrera-Vazquez, J. Ramirez-Telles, and A. Leon-Rodriguez
., Hofmeister, M.V. & Vinggaard, A.M. (2007): Endocrine-disrupting potential of bisphenol A, bisphenol A dimethacrylate, 4- n -nonylphenol, and 4- n -octylphenol in vitro : New data and a brief review. Environm. Health Perspect. , 115 , 69
Authors:Peter Ilgen, Frank Maier, and Wilhelm Schäfer
, C., von Wettstein, D., Schäfer, W., Kogel, K.H., Felk, A., Maier F.J. 2005. Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase disrupted
(neurobiological appetitive motivation processes that become disrupted; Sussman, 2017 , Chapter 2).
Certainly, there are practical costs involved – let us say that half of the population suffer from an addiction of one type or another throughout their