Authors:M. Daszykowski, M. Sajewicz, J. Rzepa, M. Hajnos, D. Staszek, Ł. Wojtal, T. Kowalska, M. Waksmundzka-Hajnos, and B. Walczak
Comparative analysis of twenty different sage (Salvia L.) species grown in Poland has been performed on the basis of two types of chromatographic fingerprints. For efficient preprocessing and comparison of these fingerprints, chemometric methods were used. The main emphasis was on preprocessing of herbal fingerprints and selecting a suitable preprocessing strategy for exploring differences among them. After successful preprocessing of the fingerprints, principal component analysis was used to reveal chemical differences among the samples. An outcome of the comparative analysis was to pinpoint specific regions of the fingerprints indicative of differences among the samples. In fingerprints of the volatile fraction from the sage (Salvia L.) species, obtained from head-space gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, important regions were identified and associated with the presence of camphene, limonene, and eucalyptol in these samples.
A vapour phase bromination procedure using80mBr and82Br has been investigated for reaction with unsaturated lipids present in a fingerprint deposit. The reaction is rapid and
in combination with autoradiography provides a promising technique for the visualisation of latent fingerprints particularly
under conditions which preclude the application of other methods. Preliminary work on the degradation of fingerprint constituents
by UV and water is reported with comparative studies using the35SO2 reaction.
Authors:Y. Wang, L. Yin, G. Lv, Y. Xu, L. Xu, Y. Qi, L. Zheng, and J. Peng
In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.
The feasibility of fingerprinting elephant ivory and rhino horn to establish the origin and accordingly promote the sale of legally stockpiled reserves from South Africa into the (closed) world markets have been investigated in the past, and preliminary studies with non-nuclear techniques look promising. The Research Reactor programme within the framework of AFRA is currently becoming bent on applications of nuclear analytical techniques for socio-economic development. It is as part of this AFRA programme, that instrumental neutron activation analysis can possibly be used as a powerful and reliable fingerprinting technique for the determination of the origin of ivory.
Authors:Cornelia Locher, Jonas Neumann, and Tomislav Sostaric
This paper explores the high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) fingerprinting of non-sugar constituents for the authentication of honeys using highly antibacterial Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Marri (Corymbia calophylla) honeys sourced from Western Australia, different Leptospermum-derived Manuka honeys, and a typical table honey from an undisclosed floral source as test samples. As is demonstrated in this study, using HPTLC fingerprinting, it is possible to define differences in botanical origin as the honey fingerprints exhibit a unique profile of bands (i.e., Rf values, color) and peak profiles (i.e., Rf and peak intensity values, peak intensity ratios) that differ distinctly from each other. The identification of patterns of common bands among honeys derived from the same floral source as authentication tool is possible. Further, slight differences among honeys from the same botanical origin might be due to age, processing, or regional factors. The HPTLC analysis of two differently aged Jarrah honeys of the same supplier indicates also that future closer investigation of intraspecies differences might assist in developing HPTLC-supported quality control tools.
Authors:F. Z. Yin, W. Yin, X. Zhang, T. L. Lu, and B. C. Cai
The ripe fruits of Schisandrae chinensis have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases and improve health. There is substantial evidence that lignan constituents are mainly responsible for the beneficial effects of this plant medicine. The amounts of the major bioactive lignans in this plant vary widely with species, habitat, and the collecting time, and as such, establishment of an HPLC fingerprint for quality control of this herbal medicine is of particular importance. To achieve this, ten batches of Fructus schisandrae chinensis were collected from Tieli, in China, and their chemical components were analyzed under optimized HPLC conditions. On the basis of the chromatographic data, a consistent HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 20 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, six were identified as schizandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin, deoxyschiandrin, γ-schizandrin B, and schizandrin C. On the basis of this HPLC fingerprint and principal-components analysis, the quality of fifteen samples from different producing areas of China was objectively assessed, and the species difference between Fructus schisandrae sphenantherae and Fructus schisandrae chinensis was clearly differentiated. To summarize, the data described in this study offer valuable information for quality control and proper use of Fructus schisandrae chinensis.
Authors:Long Wang, Yuan-Yuan Jiang, Li Zhang, Tao Wang, Rui-Wu Yang, Chun-Bang Ding, Xiao-Li Wang, and Yong-Hong Zhou
A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of active compounds (cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, and rosmarinic acid) contained in traditional Chinese folk medicine Salvia przewalskii Maxim. The herb samples (including wild, cultivated, and yin pian) from fourteen main regions were investigated. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 reserved-phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) using gradient elution with water-formic acid (99.9: 0.1, v/v) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min−1, an operating temperature of 30 °C, and a wavelength of 275 nm. Similarity analysis (SA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to analyze the data based on fingerprints. For fingerprint analysis, 27 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities among different samples. The results of SA showed that the method permits to obtain desired linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. All samples were divided into three categories by PCA and HCA, and the concentration of the eight bioactive compounds varied significantly from different regions. It was demonstrated that chromatographic fingerprinting by HPLC combined with the simultaneous determination of eight bioactive compounds was a helpful method for the quality control of S. przewalskii.
A method for determination of the composition of binary mixtures of a metal or radionuclide species by optimized repeated two-phase separations (SORTS) was proposed and theoretically substantiated. Its principle consists in repeated equilibration of two immiscible phases, one being the original liquid or solid matrix with minimal adjustment of its composition and varying the phase ratio (separation stage cut) as the optimized parameter. The batch separation technique may consist in the repeated solvent extraction or aqueous biphasic distribution, or in the replicate equilibration with solvent or leaching solution. Results of SORTS can be presented e.g. by Tukey box diagrams as the characteristic fingerprints of original species composition.