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single studies. Weights can be assigned based on the assumption of fixed and random effects. In short, the difference of these approaches is whether there is meaningful methodological heterogeneity in the studies. A fixed-effects model assigns great

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. Alm , J. ( 1996 ): What is an “Optimal” Tax System? National Tax Journal, 49 ( 1 ): 117 – 133 . Baltagi , B. H. — Bresson , G. — Pirotte , A. ( 2003 ): Fixed

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. Nickell , S. J. ( 1981 ): Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects . Econometrica , 49 ( 6 ): 1417 – 1426 . Papke , L. E. – Wooldridge , J. M. ( 2005 ): A

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. Geodesy 2005 79 111 123 Grafarend E 2006: Linear and non-linear models, fixed effects, random effects, and

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Political Budget Cycles in the Euro Area? European Union Politics , 7 ( 2 ): 191 – 211 . Nickell , S. ( 1981 ): Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects . Econometrica

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. Harwell , M. R. – Rubinstein , E. N. – Hayes , W. S. – Olds , C. C. ( 1992 ): Summarizing Monte Carlo Results in Methodological Research: The One- and Two-Factor Fixed Effects ANOVA Cases . Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics

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: N of percentages for linear mixed-effects model: 350; logLik = −1032; deviance = 2058, REML deviance = 2064. Fixed effects: mean for 1990 = 7.4% ( SE = 0.8, t = 8.9); slope for 1975–1990 = 0.35 ( SE = 0.09, t = 3.9); slope for 1990

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. First, for using panel data, the model to be used needs to be determined. The panel fixed effects or random effects model is used to estimate the model. The difference between the two models is whether the error term representing the unobservable

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variables in order to account for country-fixed effects ( Windmeijer 2005 ). We first estimate the basic growth equation using the fixed effect estimator, see Column (1) in Table 3 . The standard assumption regarding the link between the GDP per capita

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. AVN 1979 86 446 453 Grafarend E 2006: Linear and non-linear models, fixed effects, random effects, and

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