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Genetic variation in Aegilops tauschii , the genome D donor of common wheat, is an important natural resource. Ae. tauschii is a stochastic steady-state genetic system of numerous small populations belonging to the two subspecies, tauschii and strangulata . The level of genetic differentiation is high; most of the genetic variation is among populations. Local populations are rather isolated and genetic drift plays an important role. Under such conditions important “new genes” are found not only in the recognized centre of Ae. tauschii genetic variability, but also in accessions collected in the parts of the species range with relatively low general levels of genetic variability. Moreover, additional collections in the regions which are already well represented in germplasm collections could also have previously unknown “new” alleles.

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., Zanatto, A. C. S., Ettori, L. C. and Junior, O. J. D. D. (2001): Ex situ genetic conservation of tree species at the Sao Paulo forest institute, Brazil. - Forest Genetic Resources 29 : 27-33. Ex situ genetic conservation of tree

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.P. 2000. Increasing Yield Potential for Marginal Areas by Exploring Genetic Resources Collections. 11. Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 18–22 Sep. 2000, 436 pp

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. 2002 48 649 665 Dong, Y.C., Zheng, D.S. 2000. Chinese Wheat Genetic Resources. China Agricultural Press, Beijing. pp. 4

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Tahir, M., Turchetta, T., Anwar, R., Lafiandra, D. 1996. Assessment of genetic variability in hexaploid wheat landraces of Pakistan based on polymorphism for HMW-glutenin subunits. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 43 :211

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Hongxiang M, Jinbao Yao, Miaoping Zhou, Xu Zhang, Lijuan Ren, Giuhong Yu, and Weizhong Lu

14 15 Hu, L., Xu, W.G., Zhao, X.L. 2001. Development of wheat variety with high quality, early maturity and scab resistance. Science of Plant Genetic Resources 2 (2

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262 265 Nevo, E. 1993. Genetic resources of wild emmer, Triticum dicoccoides for wheat improvement: news and views (Abstract). In: Li, Z.S., Xin, Z.Y. (eds), Proc. 8 th Intl

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Damania, A.B., Altunji, H., Dhaliwal, H.S. 1992. Evaluation of Aegilops spp. for drought and frost tolerance. Genetic Resources Unit Annual Report, ICARDA, pp. 45–46. Dimov, A., Zaharieva, M., Mihova, S. 1993. Rusts

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. ( 1990 ): Allozyme diversity in plant species . – In: Brown , A. H. D. , Clegg , M. T. , Kahler , A. L. and Weir , B. S. (eds): Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources . Sinauer , Sunderland, MA , pp. 43 – 63

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Flour particle size distribution is a major factor affecting the milling behavior in common wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). Also, a previous study has revealed a relationship between flour yield and median flour particle size of Japanese wheats. However, the genetic base of Japanese common wheat is narrow and will need to be broadened. Therefore, in order to help develop the genetic resource for higher flour yields in Japanese wheat breeding, the flour yield of one hundred and seventy Chinese common wheats were investigated in relation to the median flour particle size and the flour particle size distribution patterns as determined by laser diffraction. The results showed significant differences in the median flour particle size and distribution patterns of Chinese wheats and the Japanese wheats that had been analyzed in a previous study. In particular, 45% of Chinese wheats were categorized as hard wheats, but only 4% as soft wheats. In contrast, the previously analyzed Japanese wheat proportions were 20% and 25%, respectively. The results show that analysis of median flour particle size distribution by laser diffraction is a simple but effective tool for measuring and selecting the good flour milling quality in Chinese wheat genetic resources. In addition, the major differences between the Japanese and Chinese wheats highlighted in this study occurred despite the fact that it is well known that Chinese common wheats contributed to modern Japanese wheat varieties. The differences may be explained by either the founder effect or by a selective bottleneck in Japanese wheat genetic resources.

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