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Triticale is a high yielding cereal grain which performs well as a dual-purpose crop (both mid-season biomass and end-season grain harvests), however, is usually inferior to wheat under the requirements of a high-value milling grain market. There is potential to increase the profitability of dual-purpose triticale by improving grain quality for food products. Currently the ash content of triticale grain is above acceptable limits and protein content is usually below the requirement for a milling market. This research compared the yield, test weight, ash and protein content of four winter triticale genotypes in replicated grain only and dual-purpose treatments over five year-site environments, based on a previously reported hypothesis that removal of triticale biomass reduces grain ash content.Cutting had a highly variable influence on yield and protein content between genotypes. Ash content was either unaffected or increased by cutting, again depending on the genotype. Ash content was negatively correlated with both stage of plant development when cut (explaining 82% of the variation) and amount of dry matter removed (explaining 65% of the variation). The results suggest that ash content in dual-purpose triticale grain may be reduced by combining suitable cultivars with later cutting; however, this may also decrease the grain protein content. It is unlikely that grazing or cutting is a suitable strategy to reduce ash content in triticale to the level required by wheat milling markets.

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A total of 32 bacterial isolates including Mesorhizobium (N=10), Azotobacter (N=12) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (N=10) were isolated and tested for siderophore, HCN, ammonia, indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization in vitro . The bacterial cultures were positive for siderophore, HCN and ammonia. Among the isolates, M. ciceri RC3 and A. chrococcum A4 displayed 35 and 14 μg ml −1 of IAA, respectively, whereas Bacillus produced 19 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 17 μg ml −1 ( Bacillus PSB10) of IAA in Luria Bertani broth. The diameter of the P solubilization zone varied between 4 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 5 mm ( Bacillus PSB10) and a considerable amount of tricalcium phosphate (7 and 8 μg ml −1 by Bacillus PSB1 and Bacillus PSB10, respectively) was released in liquid medium, with a concomitant drop in pH. The effects of N 2 -fixing and PS bacteria on the growth, chlorophyll content, seed yield, grain protein and N uptake of chickpea plants in field trials varied considerably between the treatments. Nodule number and biomass were significantly greater at 90 days after sowing (DAS), decreasing by 145 DAS. Seed yield increased by 250% due to inoculation with M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10, relative to the control treatment. Grain protein content ranged from 180 ( Bacillus PSB1) to 309 ng g −1 ( M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10) in inoculated chickpea. The N contents in roots and shoots differed considerably among the treatments.

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The yield, protein and starch content of Martonvásár maize hybrids belonging to different FAO groups were examined in experiments involving early, optimal and late sowing dates in two different years (drought — 2007, favourable water supplies — 2008) on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen.Sowing date had a significant effect on maize grain yield in the dry year. The grain yields of hybrids with longer growing periods were significantly higher than those with shorter growing periods in both years, but they reacted sensitively to the change in sowing date in the dry year. Due to the rainfall distribution in the growing season, sowing date did not modify the performance of the hybrids in the year with favourable water supplies. Sowing date had a significant effect on the grain protein content in the dry year, with significantly higher values after late sowing than after early or optimal sowing. Averaged over the sowing dates, the protein content of the FAO 200 hybrid was significantly higher in both years than that of hybrids in other FAO groups. In the dry year, the greatest difference in protein content could be observed between the early and late sowing dates for hybrids in all four FAO groups. A negative correlation was found between yield and protein content. Sowing date significantly increased the starch content of maize in the favourable year, with a significant difference between early and late sowing dates.In the dry year higher starch contents were recorded for all the hybrids and for all the sowing dates than in the favourable year. In the dry year, sowing date only caused a significant difference in the starch content in the case of FAO 200 sown at optimal and late sowing dates. In the favourable year, a significant difference was only obtained for the starch content of the FAO 400 hybrid sown at early and late sowing dates. Satisfactory quality can only be achieved if suitable genotypes are grown with appropriate technologies.

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582 Law, C.N., Payne, P.I. 1983. Genetical aspects of breeding for improved grain protein content and type in wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 1 :79

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to the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112 :97–105. Dubcovsky J. High-temperature adult plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance gene Yr36 from Triticum turgidum

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63 70 Birch, C.J. and Long, K.E. (1990). Effect of nitrogen on the growth, yield and grain protein content of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). Australian Journal of

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of environment and grain protein content on malt extract yield. J. Inst. Brew. 106 :111–115. Montoya J.L. Mechanisms of malt extract development in barleys from different

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. Quantitative trait loci influencing grain protein content in tetraploid wheats. Plant Breed. 115 :310–316. Gale M.D. Quantitative trait loci influencing grain protein content in

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of grain protein content, grain yield and thousand-kernel weight in bread wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106 :1032–1040. Charmet G. Genetic analysis of grain protein content, grain

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: N. Pržulj, M. Mirosavljević, P. Čanak, M. Zorić, and J. Boćanski

. Mladenov , V. , Banjac , B. , Krishna , A. , Miloševic , M. 2012 . Relation of grain protein content and some agronomic traits in European cultivars of winter wheat . Cereal Res. Commun. 40 : 532 – 541

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