Authors:T.-K. Wang, Y.-D. Yang, B. Du, S. Yu, and W.-L. Hou
Chestnut exhibits anti-inflammatory, styptic, anti-diarrhea, and analgestic effects as a traditional Chinese medicine. There is increasing evidence that shows that the consumption of chestnuts has become more important in human nutrition due to the health benefits provided by the antioxidants. The phenolic compounds are responsible for major bioactivities, such as anti-tumor and anti-oxidation. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds (gallic acid, GA; protocatechuic acid, PR; catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; quercetin, QU; kaempferol, KA) in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima blume) kernel. The sample followed by separation on Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, id., 5 μm) with gradient elution of methanol-1.0% acetate acid solution as a mobile phase, at a temperature of 30°C, under the ratio of 1.2 mL min−1, with 5 μL injection volume, and multi-wavelength synthesis was used with DAD. The correlation coefficients were larger than 0.999, the recoveries were 97.58% for GA, 100.41% for PA, 96.23% for CA, 101.38% for QU, 99.15% for EP, and 98.60% for KA, relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.04% for GA, 1.21% for PA, 1.09% for CA, 1.19% for QU, 1.06% for EP, and 1.20% for KA. This method was applied for the determination of phenolics in chestnut kernel and was found to be fast, sensitive, and suitable.
Authors:T Venckunas, J Simonavicius, and JE Marcinkeviciene
Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function.
11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography.
Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05).
Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.
Authors:Tímea Kaszab, Blanka Halasi, and Zoltan Kovacs
The fiber intake is an important part of the human diet. The fiber-deficient nutrition may have long-term health problems. Oat (Avena sativa) is an excellent source of fiber and it has many health benefits due to its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Oats are used as flour and flakes in the food industry. The oat-flakes can be used in a variety of cakes, but it can be also consumed as breakfast cereals or porridge.
The objective of our work was to determine the effect of the sugar content and sugar types on main sensory parameters of oat-flakes biscuit. During the experiments, six different types of biscuit were made with the addition of white or brown sugar at three different concentration levels. The moisture content, color, and the frangibility of the samples were analyzed during the 4-day storage period. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also performed on the first day of storage.
The parameters of the rupture test and color measurement did not show significant changes during the storage, but the individual types of biscuits made of different types and quantities of sugar could be well distinguished. Results of sensory evaluation showed significant differences in frangibility, structure and stickiness parameters.
Authors:I. Radojčić Redovniković, M. Repajić, S. Fabek, K. Delonga, N. Toth, and J. Vorkapić Furač
Numerous recent publications have compared different cultivars of broccoli and different cultivation conditions suggesting that great variations in the content of phytochemicals among cultivars are due to genetic, and many environmental factors. The purpose of the present work was the quantification of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity in the florescences of 13 genotypes from freshly harvested broccoli grown under uniform agroecological practices. The present results showed a significant variation in the level of bioactive compounds and consequently potential health benefits of broccoli (total glucosinolates 12.04–22.48 μmol g−1 d.w., the total phenolic content 15.54–26.92 mg g−1 d.w., total carotenoid content 0.19 mg g−1–0.46 mg g−1 d.w.). Studied cultivars were different in the level of the individual bioactive compounds, although some cultivars had higher content of all three analysed bioactive compounds such as Marathon, Ironman and General cultivar. In addition, these three cultivars showed excellent marketable properties and we choose them for the further breeding program in order to study variation among bioactive compounds in more details.
The fatty acid compositions of the total lipid, neutral and polar lipid fractions in the liver and muscle of Capoeta sieboldii and Capoeta baliki from Tödürge Lake were determined. Major fatty acids found in total lipid (TL) and neutral lipid (NL) in liver and muscles were C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:1 n-9, C18:1 n-7, C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, and C22:6 n-3. Beside these acids, C18:0 was another notable fatty acid in polar lipid (PL) fraction of the tissues investigated. The n-3/n-6 ratio, which is an indicator of health benefits of fish oils, was between 2.89 (PLs of liver) and 5.84 (PLs of muscle) in C. baliki, while it was found between 1.43 (PLs of liver) and 2.52 (NLs of muscle) in C. sieboldii. C. baliki was the excellent species in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in TL (43.92% in muscle) and PLs (52.94% in muscle) and C22:6 n-3 amounts (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) were responsible for these high percentages. These results suggest that Capoeta species investigated have high nutritive value in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acids for human nutrition.
Authors:V. Szűcs, Z. Fazakas, M. Tarcea, and R. Guiné
Dietary fibres (DFs) are essential components of the balanced diet. Even though the adequate level of their consumption can be ensured from several natural (e.g. fruit, vegetables, legumes) and ‘artificial’ sources (e.g. functional foods), the consumed levels are below the recommendations. To analyse the Hungarian and Romanian consumers’ knowledge level, their perceptions of the health benefits associated with fibre, as well as the recognition of the potential information sources, a survey questionnaire was conducted with the total of 713 consumers. Results showed that the level of knowledge about DFs was not adequate. Internet was found to be widely used and identified as one of the most appropriate information sources to encourage the consumption of DF. It was a favourable result that three-quarter of the respondents was interested in the topic of healthy food consumption; however, just less than half of them took into consideration the label information during their shopping decisions. To increase the consumption of DF and to support the responsibility and conscious consumer decisions steps must to be done (e.g. education of children, pointing out of the sources). For this purpose, modern information technology and communication channels fitting to the consumers’ cultural and personal particularities can be utilized.
Authors:M. Atanacković Krstonošić, J. Cvejić Hogervorst, Lj. Torović, V. Puškaš, U. Miljić, M. Mikulić, and Lj. Gojković Bukarica
Most of red wine's health benefits are attributed to polyphenols, which can express different biological effects. During ageing process, numerous chemical reactions occur, alternating phenolic composition of wine. Therefore, this paper focused on the influence of ageing on the evolution of wine phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and anthocyanins). Wines from 4 local grape varieties (Frankovka, Portugieser, Probus, and Rumenika) were analysed after 1 month and 4 years of ageing. Monomeric anthocyanin and total phenolic contents and antioxidative potential in aged wines were also determined. Among tested phenolics, main components in aged wines remained gallic acid (2.16–19.55 mg l−1) and catechin (8.39–37.21 mg l−1). The most prominent changes of analysed phenolic compounds during ageing were observed for p-coumaric acid (from +173.3% to +763.1%) and malvidin-3-glucoside (from +173.3% to +763.1%). Wine from Rumenika variety maintained the highest content of individual phenols after ageing. Additionally, aged wines had very low content of monomeric anthocyanins. Significant correlation (r= −0.93, P<0.05) between total phenolic content and IC50 values in aged wines was also noticed. Obtained results provide useful information about the quality preservation during aging and storage of these products.
Authors:E.I. Nnawuihe, K. Banwo, K., and A.I. Sanni
Studies were carried out to isolate and screen lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potentials and amylolytic activities from the ruminal ingesta of cow and goat. Ninety isolates obtained from the three abattoirs were divided into the following species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. fermentum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. collinoides, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The isolates were screened for probiotic potentials and amylolytic activities. Four isolates possessed probiotic potentials: L. plantarum CA3b, L. fermentum GA2d, L. plantarum GA1d, and L. plantarum GA3e. Lactobacillus plantarum CA3b, L. fermentum GA2d, and L. plantarum GA3e survived pH 2.5 and 3.5 after 180 min. Lactobacillus plantarum GA1d had the highest tolerance of 82.44% and 71.03% to 0.3% and 1% bile salts concentrations, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum CA3b hydrolysed 3% starch with an average zone of clearance of 10.0 mm, while L. plantarum GA1d hydrolysed 2% with a zone of 9.5 mm. These two strains also possessed bacteriocin activities against E. coli, and were characterised based on their reactions to pH, temperature, and enzymes treatments. Ruminal ingesta of cow and goat harbour lactic acid bacteria possessing amylolytic and probiotic potentials, which can be exploited in the fermentation of feedstock, conferring health benefits and improved performance to these ruminants.
Authors:N. Di Benedetto, C. Fares, V. Menga, M. Laus, D. Pastore, and Z. Flagella
Epidemiological studies associated consumption of whole-durum wheat products with reduced incidence of chronic diseases, diabetes and cancer. These health benefits have been mainly attributed to antioxidant activity (AA) due to the unique phytochemical content of wheat. Milling, extrusion and drying process can influence the activity of these beneficial compounds. In order to have a deep insight into the changes of nutritional value from raw material to pasta, the aim of this study was: i) to compare the AA of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of five durum wheat genotypes along the pasta chain; ii) to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties of whole meal after processing in semolina and pasta. To this aim TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay based on ABTS•+ [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity was used due to its high reproducibility and simplicity.Low genotype variability was observed for both hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts. Milling process caused a significant decrease in AA due to the removal of the outside layers of the kernel. This decrease was more marked for lipophilic extracts due to the different distribution of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants along the kernel. Pasta making process while determining a further decrease in AA of lipophilic extracts caused a slight increase in AA of hydrophilic extracts compared to semolina. This might be due to melanoidins formed during Maillard reaction.Only for lipophilic extracts a predictive evaluation of semolina and pasta ABTS•+ scavenging activity was possible by testing raw material.
Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agroindustry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits.