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Abstract  

Hypocrellins, natural photosensitizers including hypocrellin A (HA) and hypocrellin B (HB), have been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine to cure various skin diseases. Hypocrellins have excellent antiviral activity, which can inhibit the growth of human immunodeficiency virus. They also exhibit significant light-induced antitumor property. In this article, thermal analysis technologies (e.g., differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry) are employed to characterize whether the photosensitive hypocrellin A could be encapsulated with silica nanoparticle (SN) material or not, and evaluate the stability of inclusion complex. The results show that the inclusion complex exhibits improved performance in both stability and hydrophilicity than natural hypocrellin A. Fluorescence spectrophotometry studies have also been performed to verify the thermal analysis results. The results suggest that the thermal analysis technology could be used as an effective and rapid tool to characterize the encapsulation properties of the novel anticancer HA–SN complex.

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Planar chromatography is commonly used for the quality control of herbal medicines due to its many advantages. Its combination with chemometrics was proven to be a fast and reliable tool for the extraction of even more analytical information, such as similarity or dissimilarity between samples, and the identification of marker compounds. To date, depending on image processing procedures, different variables have been obtained as input data, and thus, various preprocessing procedures have been applied. In this study, we converted the chromatogram images of high-performance thin-layer chromatography to form a data matrix, by digitization of the chromatograms. Further, principal component analysis was applied on raw data and investigated after different preprocessing techniques. The proposed preprocessing techniques were successfully applied to improve the differentiation between two types of German propolis. The best multivariate models were observed in the case of warping, standard normal variate, and mean centering/autoscaling.

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Summary

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of six alkaloids, i.e., (−)-(R)-platydesmin, noroxyhydrastinine, berberine, skimmianine, canthin-6-one, and pteleine in the herbal medicine of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. The optimal condition for extraction and separation was achieved with a linear mobile phase gradient prepared from 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The LODs and LOQs for the analytes ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 μg mL−1 and from 0.25 to 0.80 μg mL−1, respectively. The optimized method was applied to the determination of alkaloids in P. amurense Rupr. and was found to be efficient. This method can provide a scientific and technical platform to the manufacturers for setting up a quality control standard as well as to the public for quality and safety assurance of the proprietary traditional Chinese medicines.

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Summary

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry UPLC-QTOF-MS method has been developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis major compounds in Saussurea eopygmaea Hand-Mazz, which has long been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine. This method was validated to be sensitive, precise, and accurate with the limits of detection of compounds 2,3,4,6, and 7 with 0.67–1.90 μg mL−1, the overall intra-day and inter-day variations less than 8.45%, and the overall recovery over 93.8%, respectively. The correlation coefficients (R 2) of the calibration curves were higher than 0.998. In addition, by comparison MS and MS/MS spectra with those of authentic compounds and literatures, a total of 14 main peaks were identified within 6 min. These results demonstrate that this approach has the potential for quality control of S. eopygmaea and other Tibetan herbal medicines.

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A simple and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-bioautographic method was developed for the quantitative analysis of magnolol and honokiol in the herbal medicine Magnoliae officinalis Cortex. The samples were separated on a silica gel HPTLC plate with a mixture solution of toluene-methanol (10:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots were visualized by dipping in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) reagent and measured at a wavelength of 550 nm in a reflection mode, scanning after derivatization for 40 min. The method had excellent linearity (r 2 = 0.9939 for magnolol and r 2 = 0.9989 for honokiol, respectively) in the concentration range of 0.16–0.97 mg spot−1 for both analytes. The recoveries were 94.5–105.9% for magnolol and 86.6–103.4% for honokiol, respectively. The established HPTLC-bioautographic method was evaluated comprehensively in quantitative and antioxidant activity analysis of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae officinalis Cortex and various plants.

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C.A. Newall, L.A. Anderson , and J.D. Phillipson , Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals, The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1996

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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. However, the application of TCM in diseases is still not fully recognized by people around the world, the main reason is that Chinese herb is a very complex mixture containing hundreds of different components. Thus, it is essential to make quality control and evaluation of TCM. A new quality evaluation method, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS), was developed to the quality control of alkaloids in TCM, a case study on Radix aconiti lateralis, named Fuzi in Chinese. Six alkaloids, including aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, were selected as main components to evaluate the quality of Radix aconiti lateralis. The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using aconitine as the internal reference substance and the content of aconitine was calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. The present results showed that there was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method with the relative average deviations less than 3.0%, and QAMS is an effective way to control the quality of herbal medicines and seems to be a convenient and accurate approach to analyze multi-composition when reference substances are unavailable.

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Summary

The stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) ex Havil have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases and improve health. There is evident evidence that alkaloids constituents are mainly responsible for the beneficial effects of this plant medicine. The amounts of the major bioactive alkaloids in this plant vary widely with species, habitat, and as such, and establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint for quality control of this herbal medicine is of particular importance. The most alkaloids are used for medicine treatment and research. On the basis of the chromatographic data, a consistent HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 15 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, four were identified as rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, and isocorynoxeine. On the basis of this HPLC fingerprint and principal-components analysis, the quality of fifteen samples from different producing areas of China was objectively assessed. To summarize, the data described in this study offer valuable information for quality control and proper use of U. rhynchophylla (Miq.) ex Havil.

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Summary

The ripe fruits of Schisandrae chinensis have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases and improve health. There is substantial evidence that lignan constituents are mainly responsible for the beneficial effects of this plant medicine. The amounts of the major bioactive lignans in this plant vary widely with species, habitat, and the collecting time, and as such, establishment of an HPLC fingerprint for quality control of this herbal medicine is of particular importance. To achieve this, ten batches of Fructus schisandrae chinensis were collected from Tieli, in China, and their chemical components were analyzed under optimized HPLC conditions. On the basis of the chromatographic data, a consistent HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 20 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, six were identified as schizandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin, deoxyschiandrin, γ-schizandrin B, and schizandrin C. On the basis of this HPLC fingerprint and principal-components analysis, the quality of fifteen samples from different producing areas of China was objectively assessed, and the species difference between Fructus schisandrae sphenantherae and Fructus schisandrae chinensis was clearly differentiated. To summarize, the data described in this study offer valuable information for quality control and proper use of Fructus schisandrae chinensis.

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The technological improvement in the structural elucidation of natural compounds has made it probable to generate appropriate strategies for the analysis and standardization of plant-based medicines. An appliance of highly oriented hyphenated techniques provides a definite tool for herbal investigations. Therefore, the present study was directed towards the standardization of biomarkers gallic acid and berberine in polyherbal formulation Entoban capsules to ensure the quality of the herbal drugs. A rapid, simple, accurate, and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the quantitative estimation of biomarkers berberine and gallic acid has been developed. HPTLC was performed to evaluate the presence of gallic acid and berberine applying toulene—ethyl acetate—formic acid—methanol (12:9:4:0.5 v/v) and ethanol—water—formic acid (90:9:1 v/v), as the mobile phase, respectively. The R F values (0.58 for gallic acid and 0.76 for berberine) in both sample and reference standard were found comparable under ultraviolet (UV) light at 273 nm and 366 nm, respectively. The method developed resulted in good-quality peak shape and enabled high-quality resolution of biomarkers. The present standardization undertaken reveals compliance with the analytical procedure; therefore, it is concluded that Entoban capsule is a well-standardized product. Standardization falls under the specific guidelines of quality herbal medicine following the prerequisite for global harmonization.

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