One of the more surprising developments in recent American music theory has been the revival of interest in traditional, as opposed to Schenkerian, approaches to musical form. Spearheading this renewal are William Caplin’s 1998 treatise
, and James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy’s more recent
Elements of Sonata Theory
(2006). Both treatises, however, ignore the eighteenth-century operatic repertory entirely. And while valuable studies of eighteenth-century aria-forms exist (notably by James Webster and Mary Hunter), such studies generally predate the advent of the new American
. There is, as a result, a gap between the most recent developments in the theory of Classical form and our current understanding of formal processes in late-eighteenth-century opera.This paper sketches one possible way across that gap. Even a casual survey of Haydn’s Eszterháza operas suggests that formal processes play out in ways related to, but nonetheless distinct from, their articulation in Haydn’s instrumental music (in response, no doubt, to the particular exigencies of writing texted music for the operatic stage). Thanks to its characteristic attention to the smallest possible form-functional units — the presentational, continuational and cadential phrases that subsist at the intra-thematic level — Caplin’s approach to Classical form proves particularly adaptable to this new context. The paper illustrates the analytic usefulness of Caplin’s approach for analyzing vocal music through a consideration of representative examples from
Il mondo della luna
The asymmetrical aksak rhythm represents one of the distinctive and most vital features of the musical traditions on the Balkans. In spite of that, this rhythm system - discovered only at the beginning of the 20th century in Bulgaria - has almost been unknown, both to the musicological/ ethnomusicological sciences, and to the world of serious music. Owing to inadequate transcriptions of most of the musical notations of the vocal and instrumental music from the beginning of the 20th century, it was hardly possible to perceive the presence of this asymmetric rhythm in the Balkan area. Because of that the ethnomusicological results of this paper are based primarily on the transcribed musical-folkloristic material dating from the second half of the 20th century. But, regardless of that or other difficulties, the musical material available enabled me to establish the presence and the different forms of the aksak rhythm in the Balkan region. Along this guideline, my intention is, on the basis of the available literatures and musical notations, to point out the most frequent forms and the distribution of the aksak rhythm, its earliest appearances in the works of composed music, as well as the continuity and changes of this rhythm in the vocal and instrumental tradition of the Balkan peoples.
Recent interpretations of both Haydn’s personality (as a man) and his musical style (or ‘persona’) have focused on the two opposed categories
. The present essay adds a third category on both sides of the equation:
), and argues that it is equally important. The various meanings of sensibility are laid out and their applicability to Haydn discussed, including his rich and varied relationships with lovers and intimate friends. The problematics of the possible correlations between an artist’s personality and his style are discussed; it is argued that, contrary to recent theories of their separation into different domains, these are in fact closely related. Sensibility was a central aspect of mid- and late 18th-century aesthetics, both in ideas about ideal human behavior, and in prose fiction, opera and drama, etc. — as well as instrumental music (Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach). In Haydn’s case, not surprisingly, it has so far been located in genres destined primarily for private use: keyboard music and lieder; this is illustrated by an analysis and interpretation of “Das Leben ist ein Traum” (Hob. XXVIa:21; published 1784). In such works we may imagine Haydn as ‘speaking to’ the dedicatee of the work, as well as the sympathetic listener. However, sensibility is also an important aspect of style in the string quartet and symphony, where it has almost never been considered relevant. Examples are discussed in the slow movements from the quartet op. 76 no. 5 and the symphonies nos. 75, 88, 92, 98, 99, and 102. It is argued that the old notion of ‘Classical style’ (fortunately now on the decline), with its rigid demarcation of ‘high’ instrumental genres from both vocal music (Haydn’s operas) and earlier instrumental
(Emanuel Bach), was the primary reason that scholars and listeners have until now remained unmoved by Haydn’s sensibility.
, László 1956 Sopronvidéki virrasztóénekek [Wake Songs from the Sopron Region] . Budapest : Zeneműkiadó . (Népzenei monográfiák IV.).
Lajtha , László 1988 InstrumentalMusic from Western Hungary. From the Repertoire of an Urban Gipsy Band . (Ed
, Norbert 1946: La Musique. Des origines a nos jours . Paris.
Ecsedy Ildikó 1960: A középkori népi hangszeres zene nyomozása régi magyar személyneveinkben [Tracing Medieval Vernacular InstrumentalMusic in Old Hungarian Personal Names
. In the first part, the development of music is depicted. It is followed by the development of instrumentalmusic. We gain a very detailed description of music education by summarizing its main points.
The author of the fifth study is Gábor
instrumentalmusic of Western/Central/Eastern European composers, which was not very well known to Belgrade audiences, and Binički thought audiences should be gradually educated to accept firstly so-called light music, simple pieces, salon miniatures, before
the catalog. It is not surprising that the majority of works were symphonies (82) and overtures (40) since at the end of the eighteenth century there was an expansion of instrumentalmusic, propelled by the demand coupled with a hyper-production by
–114. 11 Lujza TARI, Kodály Zoltán, a hangszeres zene kutatója [Zoltán Kodály, researcher of instrumentalmusic] (Budapest: Balassi, 2001), 228–262; Olga SZALAY, “Kodály népzenei gy?jtésének mutatói” [Indices of Kodály’s folk music collections], appendix