Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 1,114 items for :

  • "intermediate" x
  • Chemistry and Chemical Engineering x
  • All content x
Clear All

Abstract  

A method of measuring heavy water concentration is described based on intermediate neutron moderation. With a 1.6 g252Cf neutron source and a BF3 proportional counter, for 500 ml samples, accuracies of the measurements are within ±0.02 mol% in the concentration range of 0100 mol% with 210 minute counting. To evaluate the practical effectiveness of the method, a model apparatus was built for routine use in laboratory and on-stream measurements. It was successfully applied to observe the substitution process between light water and heavy water in an ion exchange resin tower at a nuclear power station.

Restricted access

Summary The heat capacity of contractile proteins actin and myosin was studied in psoas muscle of rabbit in strongly and weakly binding state of myosin to actin as a function of temperature by DSC. Deconvolution of the unfolding scans makes possible to characterize the structural domains of the macromolecules. We tried to approach the unfolding process in different intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis. The thermal transitions were calorimetrically irreversible, therefore the two-state irreversible model that describes fairly well the denaturation of different proteins was used for evaluation of the denaturation processes in muscle fibers in strongly (rigor, ADP) and weakly binding states (ATP·Vi, ADP·AlF4) of myosin to actin. Deconvolution resulted in four transitions, the first three transition temperatures were almost independent of the intermediate states of muscle, the last transition temperature was shifted to higher temperature, when the buffer solution was manipulated. The mean values in strongly binding states were Tm1=52.9±0.7°C, Tm2=57.9±0.7°C, Tm3=63.7±1.0°C and Tm4=67.8±0.7°C, but the last transition increased to higher temperature depending on the Pi analogue.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Zirconyl tungstate ceramic-supported membranes were developed and characterized. The transport process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and La(III) from the anode compartment to the cathode was investigated. The cationic fluxes for Cs(I), Sr(II) and La(III) were found to be 9·10–10, 2.7·10–9 and 2.4·10–9 g·eq·cm–2·s–1, respectively. The transport numbers of these cations were found to be 0.12, 0.07 and 0.09, respectively. Separation of Cs(I), Sr(II) and La(III) was achieved using EDTA as a chelating agent in the anode compartment. Cs(I) was successfully separated with a decontamination factor of 97% from simulated intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW) containing Cs(I) and Sr(II).

Restricted access

A relatively simple strategy is described for the thermal hazard screening of isolated synthetic intermediates and products, as employed within the Research Division of a major pharmaceutical company.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Hydrated iron oxide or amorphous-Fe2O3·3.5 H2O (HFeO), hydrated titanium oxide (HTiO) and hydrated thorium oxide (HThO) were synthesized and their applicability for the decontamination of intermediate level liquid wastes (ILLW) was tested. The sorption of a few actinides like plutonium and americium on HFeO, 137Cs and 106Ru on HTiO and 90Sr on HThO was investigated as a function of pH, time and loading capacity of the hydrous oxide with metal ions. The influence of the total dissolved salt content was also monitored. Some of these parameters influenced the sorption behavior significantly. The radiation stability of these inorganic sorbents were studied by irradiating them up to 48 Mrad. Adsorbed actinides and fission products were successfully eluted from HFeO and from the mix-bed of HTiO and HThO by 0.5M nitric acid.

Restricted access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: P. Sinha, P. Satyasai, R. Shankar, R. Muthiah, S. Bera, S. Narasimhan, A. Pandey, and A. Jaleel

Abstract  

An intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW or Category III waste) stream was treated for the removal of radioactive Cs in pilot scale experiments, using three different ion exchange media. Results indicated that the polyacrylic fibre coated with cupric ferric hexacyanoferrate (CuFeHCF-fibre composite) was the most efficient, followed by cupric hexacyanoferrate loaded ion exchange resin (CuHCF-resin) and mixed zeolites (AR-1, 4A and 13X in the ratio 6:1:1). The mixed zeolites column and the CuFeHCF-fibre column were used in series in order to get a high total decontamination factor (DF). Leaching studies on the CuFeHCF-fibre composite loaded with137Cs, in demineralised (DM) water, tap water and ground water media indicated a release of about 19.3%, 25.5% and 41.3% of137Cs, respectively, in a period of about 8 months. XPS studies with CuFeHCF-fibre composite indicated some chemical interaction between the CuFeHCF precipitate and the polyacrylic fibre. Some of the possible disposal options for the CuFeHCF-fibre composite have also been discussed.

Restricted access

The kinetics of thermal decomposition of iron(II) sulphate hexa- to monohydrates, as well as the hydroxy- and oxysulphates of iron(III), are presented and discussed. The results confirm that the final intermediate that decomposes to iron(III) oxide and sulphur trioxide during the thermal decomposition of any hydrate of iron(II) sulphate is the oxysulphate, Fe2O(SO4)2.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (RAW) isussed from nuclear power plants have high salt contents ca 200 g·dm–3, the pH of liquid RAW being 12.5–13.7. A convenient method for separation of cesium under these conditions is solvent extraction with substituted phenols. For this purpose weere tested antioxidants produced in Czechoslovakia: AO 2246 [2,2-methylene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tertbutyl)phenol]; AO 4 [2-tertbutyl-4-(2-phenylpropyl)phenol]; AO 4K [2,6-ditertbuty-4-methylphenol]; AO 301 [2,2-methylene-bis-(4-{2-phenylpropyl}-6-tert-butyl)phenol]; and one antioxidant imporoted from Japan—NOCRAC 2246. This antioxidant is equivalent to AO 2246. After the first experiment it was found that the extraction efficiency for antioxidants AO 4 and Ao 301 is very low and the following experiments were made with AO 2246 (NOCRAC 2246) and AO 4K. Some effects on extracton as, pH of water phase, influence of diluent, influence of concentration of antioxidants, extraction time, were studied. The best results gave antioxidant NOCRAC 2246 in nitrobenzene, the extraction efficiency was 92.3% with pH 13.23.

Restricted access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: P. Ormai, A. Fritz, J. Solymosi, I. Gresits, E. Hertelendi, Z. Szúcs, N. Vajda, Zs. Molnár, and P. Zagyvai

Abstract  

In the execution of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, it is important to evaluate accurately the kind and quantity of each radionuclide in the wastes. For such an evaluation, correlation of non-gamma-emitting nuclides based on gamma-emitting nuclides is recommended and regarded as a practical method. This method necessitates a completion of a highly accurate and reliable nondestructive assay system of gamma-emitting nuclides for practical use. In 1992, in support of the new waste disposal program in Hungary, Paks NPP initiated a waste characterization program to determine the radiological properties of its radwastes. A segmented gamma scanning system has been set up to measure the gamma-emitting nuclides in 200 litre low level drums following in-drum compaction. In the framework of the program a radiochemical analysis sub-program was started to determine the long-lived non-gamma emitting radionuclides, mainly those listed in the US regulatory document (10CFR61). The radionuclides of interest have been3H,14C,90Sr,55Fe,59Ni,99Tc,129I and TRUs. Sample preparation techniques and measurement methods have been selected and used. Newly developed or adopted methods have been tested on real liquid radwaste streams such as concentrates, ion-exchange resin and sludge. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. In the next stage of the characterisation program attempt will be made for providing correlation factors between the gamma and non-gamma-emitting radionuclides in different waste streams. Short description of the methods and results on waste inventory are given by highlighting the problem areas.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in the intermediate layer (400–2000 m) of the northwestern North Pacific were determined to elucidate the export flux of particulate matter. 210Po generally showed depletion relative to 210Pb in the intermediate layer, suggesting that 210Po was scavenged by particles. Because the removal rate constants of 210Po in the western region were higher than those in the eastern region and this trend coincided with that of the particle fluxes in the surface layer, the export production in the surface layer was assumed to influence the particle flux in the intermediate layer of the northwestern North Pacific.

Restricted access