of them influencing the development, the lifespan, and function of immune system [ 60–64 ]. The hormones, binding to the receptors, can influence each immune cells or specifically one type of them (e.g., thyroid hormone effects on macrophages [ 63
-Bergner, M., Brehmer, Y, Müller, V., Li, S., Lindenberger, U. (2010): Episodic memory across the lifespan: The contributions of autoamtic and strategic components. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews , 34 , 1080
The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions.
The time-course of average age of members of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the XVIII–XIX centuries was analyzed. A long-term
trend of academician aging was found, with its extrapolation correctly predicting the average age of the recent academicians.
Although the lifespan was increasing as well and its effect can statistically explain the most part (up to 80%) of variance
in the average age, it was not the only cause. Furthermore, its effect might be indirect (i.e. the increasing average age
was not simply due to a longer lifespan of elected members), since average membership span was slightly decreasing. At least
a part of the trend was caused by a growth of competition for election since it was negatively correlaten with a contemporaneous
number of members (at given lifespan and historical year). Comparison of three groups (full members, corresponding members
and foreign members), differing in competition level, supports this suggestion. Besides the history of science, the results
may be useful for dealing with the problem of growing age of the scientific establishment.
Authors:B. Abou-Awad, A. Metwally, and M. Al-Azzazy
The predacious mite
(Athias-Henriot) completed its life-span when fed on the motile stages of the mango bud mite
Sayed, the mango rust mite
(Attiah), the leaf coating mite
Keifer and nymphs of mango red mite
(Rahman and Sabra) in the laboratory at different temperatures and relative humidities. The increase of different temperatures and decrease relative humidities from 25°C and 60% to 30°C and 55% and 35°C and 50% shortened development and increased reproduction and prey consumption. Life table parameters indicated that feeding
led to the highest reproduction rate (rm = 0.216 females/female/day), while feeding on
gave the lowest reproduction rate (rm= 0.183) at 35°C and 50% R. H. Different prey species of eriophyid mango mites, especially
, have a high nutritional value for
, as a facultative predator, than the tetranychid mango mite.
Authors:José Ortega, Viv Cothey, and Isidro Aguillo
The aim of this paper is to model and study the age of the Web using a sample of about four million of web pages from the
16 European Research Area countries obtained during 2004 and 2005. Web page time-stamp (date when the web pages were created
or last changed for last time), format and size in bytes data have been analysed. Several indicators are introduced to measure
longitudinal aspects of the Web. Half-age is proposed as a measure of the age distribution because this is found to be exponential.
“Web Update Index” and “Lifespan Index” are introduced to measure the changing rate of a small sample over time. Results show
that the British Web space has the youngest Web pages while the Greek and Belgian ones have the oldest. The study also compared
Web pages topics and found that Biology pages are more stable than Physics pages.
Tivadar Rombauer was a less well-known, but important personality in Hungarian history. His entrepreneur career contains several business and technological innovations in iron industry, among which the foundation of the Metallurgical Factory in Ózd stands out. During the Revolution and War of Independence his role for managing arms supply nationwide is rarely emphasized by the regular commemorations of the most important historical momentum in Hungarian collective remembrance, although its relevance is undisputable. His Protestant Saxon origin interweaved with his patriotism resulted a typical Hungarian middle-class civic virtue, which never disappeared in later generations in the US, after his obligate immigration. In this study we scope on both the origins and influence of this valuesystem detailing Rombauer’s life-span, complemented with the family roots and some descendants’ fates.
Samian ware of Lágymányos. 65 pieces of Samian ware were unearthed during the excavation of the Eraviscus settlement of Lágymányos. It is a fairly small amount compared to the number of PGW finds, which is well over a thousand pieces. Despite all this, imported ceramic finds unearthed in these sites allow us to set up a timeframe of the lifespan of the settlement. A third of the finds originate from Italia, accordingly, it is presumable that in the middle to the second half of the first century this settlement was already a part of the Roman commercial circuit. Three potteries of Italian origin classifiable into three groups includes a relatively great amount of good quality A2 ware.
The 26 pieces include early-type Drag. 29 and early forms also appear amongst the undecorated vessels. There are fewer Central Gaulish finds and even less (3 pieces) of Rheinzabern products. According to the Samian wares found the life of the settlement can be traced up until the Marcomannic wars (166–180 AD).
Later finds suggest that the settlement was abandoned or sparsely populated afterward.
Authors:Lajos Barna Tóth, Róza Bartók, Sándor Bogdán Rajcs, and Gábor Szigligeti
A peritonealis carcinosis megjelenése ma egy igen rossz prognózisú, terminális
kondícióként kezelt kórkép, amelynek terápiájában jelentős előrelépést jelent a
cytoreductiv sebészet (CRS) és a hyperthermiás intraperitonealis chemotherapia
(HIPEC). A hashártyaáttétes pácienseknél eddig alkalmazott hagyományos
műtétekkel és csekély hatású vénás chemotherapiás kezeléssel szemben ez egy
olyan új, személyre szabott, speciális beavatkozás, amellyel a betegek
többségének túlélése meghosszabbítható. Bizonyos jól meghatározott esetekben
lehetőséget nyújt a definitív, kuratív terápia elvégzésére is. A közlemény célja
a hazánkban újnak számító eljárás folyamatának irodalmi adatok szerinti
ismertetése, figyelembe véve saját gyakorlatunkat.
Otoliths are bony structures found in the ears of fish and used in the210Pb/226Ra dating method for age determination. This paper checks the assumption that222Rn is not lost from or added to orange roughy fish otoliths by diffusion, which would invalidate the technique. The first method of monitoring diffusion relies on measuring the gamma activity of daughter radionuclides. Otoliths were exposed to an atmosphere enriched in222Rn for 10 days, and the supported gamma activity inside them measured allowing for various decay corrections. The calculated radon addition was (0.5±0.5)% of the activity of the226Ra present. The second method used an alpha spectrometer and attempted to detect222Rn directly outgased from otoliths in the detector vacuum chamber. The results were consistent within errors with those of the first method and showed no loss or gain of222Rn, supporting previous estimates of a long life-span for the orange roughy. In contrast it was found that approximately 10% of222Rn formed in orange roughy fish scales was lost to an evacuated environment, (hence perhaps to an aqueous environment) and that for this species it could be difficult to base a dating method on analysis of scales. Nevertheless a preliminary minimum age of 57 years was obtained. The methods could be used with non-biological samples to determine222Rn diffusion rates.