Authors:M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler, and J. K. Jósvai
Literature Bruce , T. J. and Cork , A. ( 2001 ): Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female Helicoverpa armigera to compounds identified in flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta . J. Chem. Ecol. 27 , 1119 – 1131
Authors:Andreas Hahn, Rebecca Hinz, Thomas Meyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, Ottmar Herchenröder, Christian G. Meyer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann
: • prevalence and incidence of HIV among sexual partners, • preventive effects of precaution/protection measures, and • frequency of sexual contacts.
Based on the literature quoted above, the following assumptions apply. Recently infected individuals are
Authors:R.M. Crandall, C.R. Hayes, and E.N. Ackland
We examine literature on flooding as a disturbance on both sessile and mobile organisms. The limitations and assumptions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) are identified and examined. We conclude that research on plants supports the IDH. In contrast, mobile invertebrates and vertebrates rarely support the hypothesis. Therefore, we strongly encourage investigators to consider explanations beyond the IDH when explaining community dynamics following floods.
association has been mentioned in the Hungarian coenological literature, but has not been confirmed by relevés until present. The authors give relevés from the Bakony Mts, the Mecsek Mts and from two sampling sites of the Northern Mountain Range. The stands of the
association scattered in the middle-montane areas of Hungary are compared with another association of shaded forest rocky vegetation more widespread in submontane regions.
Authors:D. Varga, T. Müller, A. Specziár, H. Fébel, Cs. Hancz, Gy. Bázár, B. Urbányi, and A. Szabó
Fatty acid (FA) composition of the fillet and the intestinal content of dwarf common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) living in Lake Hévíz was determined in wintertime collected samples and results were compared to widespread literature data on carp. Fillet FA profile of the thermally adapted (28 °C) Hévíz dwarf carps differed from profiles originated from divergent culture and feeding conditions in the overall level of saturation. Fillet myristic acid proportions largely exceeded all literature data in spite of poor dietary supply. Fillet fatty acid results indicate the effects of thermal adaptation (high saturation level) and the correlative effects of feed components rich in omega-3 fatty acids, with special respect to docosahexaenoic acid. With the application of discriminant factor analysis the Hévíz sample was accurately differentiated from the literature data on carp fillet fatty acid profile, mostly based on C14:0, C18:1 n9, C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9 and C20:4 n6 FAs. In summary, fillet FA profile suggested thermal adaptation, location specificity and the ingestion of algal and bacterial material.
In aquatic macrophyte ecology, species abundance is usually estimated by cover values expressed on the ordinal scale. Recently, there has been increasing demand for three-dimensional estimates of plant abundance. To extend ordinal cover data into three dimensions, a new formula is proposed which considers the vertical developmental types of plants. In this, a constant k is used with three different values reflecting three groups of macrophytes, namely the “free floating leaved”; “rooted, floating leaved” and “submersed leaved” species. By using the new formula, inappropriate conversion and evaluation of ordinal abundance data occurring frequently in the literature may also be avoided.
Authors:H. Elbaraasi, M. Mézes, K. Balogh, L. Horváth, I. Csengeri, and Hedvig Fébel
Lipids are used to provide the energy to cover the metabolic needs and to provide essential fatty acids, which are important for membrane function . Fats may contain high level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prone to peroxidation  and will interact with the antioxidant defense system . There is contradiction in the literature about whether the intake of fish oil enhance  or deplete  tissue antioxidant defenses and the glutathione redox system in different organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different dietary oils on parameters of the lipid peroxide state and the glutathione redox system in C. gariepinus fingerlings.
Authors:Seher Nancy Bakal, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
The progressive rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains poses serious problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. While the number of newly developed antimicrobial compounds has greatly fallen, the resistance of pathogens against commonly prescribed drugs is further increasing. This rise in resistance illustrates the need for developing novel therapeutic and preventive antimicrobial options. The medicinal herb Nigella sativa and its derivatives constitute promising candidates. In a comprehensive literature survey (using the PubMed data base), we searched for publications on the antimicrobial effects of N. sativa particularly directed against MDR bacterial strains. In vitro studies published between 2000 and 2015 revealed that N. sativa exerted potent antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species including resistant strains. For instance, N. sativa inhibited the growth of bacteria causing significant gastrointestinal morbidity such as Salmonella, Helicobacter pylori, and Escherichia coli. However, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed resistance against black cumin seed extracts. In conclusion, our literature survey revealed potent antimicrobial properties of N. sativa against MDR strains in vitro that should be further investigated in order to develop novel therapeutic perspectives for combating infectious diseases particularly caused by MDR strains.