while others were elaborated. In approaching the texts conserved in the manuscript scrolls, it must be faced the problem of various lacuna in the text and damaged sections which make understanding of the general line of the narrative difficult. A
To examine the dynamics of incompletion that characterizes many writings by twentieth century authors, the following essay
investigates the possibilities to visualize (1) switches, (2) shuffles and (3) shifts in modern multilingual manuscripts with
digital philological tools. (1) Jerome McGann’s notions of the bibliographical and the linguistic codes were originally not
coined in relation to manuscript studies, but they can be applied to a particular form of “code switching” between an image-based
and a text-based approach. (2) Another phenomenon that typically marks the writing process of literary texts is the practice
of shuffling textual segments when their definitive position has not yet been fixed. (3) Finally, transtextual shifts in multilingual
manuscripts are not only limited to intertextual references, but often have a language-related dimension as well.
The question of authenticity in the creation of Bartók’s Viola Concerto has been one of the most enigmatic in the viola repertoire. Inconsistencies among revisions of the work by different scholars since the first attempt by Tibor Serly in 1946 reveal that the task of uncovering an authentic final version by scrutinizing the manuscript itself is not always a clearcut or “purely mechanical” endeavor. Following a brief overview of the manuscript’s layout, this article addresses some ambiguous details based on a number of puzzling indications. Some of these questions can only be resolved by acquiring an in-depth knowledge of Bartók’s musical language. The manuscript draft is thereby approached not only by studying the primary-source materials alone, but also by means of a theoretic-analytical approach. The latter takes into account principles of modality, polymodal combination, and more abstract types of pitch sets, such as hybrid modes, the octatonic scale, and other more chromatic configurations. General types of scalar or modal construction are discussed as basic determinants in performing certain figural details. Such principles as diatonic expansion, chromatic compression, and polymodal chromaticism are shown, for instance, to be essential for understanding the content and function of the trill figures and the larger linear constructions to which they belong. Thus, we may assume that the combined levels of research and analysis suggested above are essential in arriving at Bartók’s authentic conception.
The young Gogol published a study on the teaching of geography for children in 1831. At the same time, he was writing the collection of short stories,
Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka
(1831–1832). We can observe interesting connections between his texts – prose fictions and pedagogical writing – of this period: motives belonging to geography, history and folklore make a specifically large context. The author’s interest in geology, as he writes, in the „underground geography” (“подземная география”) – the earth’s crust, rocks, strata – corresponds with the “underground mythology and folklore” in the
stories, with the demonic figures (
колдун, ведьма, черт
), places (
abyss, ravine, depths of the earth, swamp, churchyard
) and time (
). In this study, on the basis of the Gogol’s long-time unedited manuscripts (
, ed. by I. A. Vinogradov, Moscow, 2001) we investigate the common roots of the seemingly heterogeneous motives to discover the hidden strata and meanings of his early works.
This paper presents a critical edition of Mordecai Qazaz's poem Adam oglu 'Man's son' written in Crimean Karaim probably at the end of the 18th century. It was published in 1841 under another title by Jacob Firkovich who did not provide the name of its author. This publication has not yet been examined. It is only now that we can identify it with Adam oglu. In the present edition, the text is edited on the basis of four manuscripts and the printed edition. Attempt was made to established the basic form of the poem and discuss language features.
The occurrence of the isolated pressus in the Gregorian Mass Proprium chants was examined in 11 early manuscripts. The early written tradition for the pressus in isolation is not at all uniform. The frequency of a pressus notation varies widely from one source to another. The author sketched the potential power of standard non parametric statistical theory in order to overcome the problem of contamination that until now hampered the study of relationships between manuscripts. The notation of the pressus in isolation is used as an illustration.
The manuscript Brussels Bibliothèque royale II 3824 is a chant manuscript in French notational style. It was written for Saint-Bénigne of Dijon. The writing of the manuscript dates it after 1228 and before 1288. The appearance of the gradual, Sacerdotes eius, twice in close placement to one another (folio 244r, 255 v) is to be regarded as unusual. It seems probable that the Brussels manuscript was copied from one or more exemplars. The important manuscript, Montpellier H 159 also originated in Dijon. There are several minor differences between the readings of Sacerdotes eius in the two manuscripts. The melodic versions are not identical. They are not organized in the same fashion. The appearance of two variant versions of Sacerdotes eius is tied to the copying process, either from one or more exemplars. The copying process was wedded to the process of faithful copying rather than critical editing.