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Abstract  

The study tries to analyze regional technological capabilities, linking technological positions to economic strength of the region. To measure this link, we correlate the EPO patent data with trade data to assess the degree to which technological advantages are translated into comparative advantages for the Flemish region in Belgium. The analysis for Flanders provides some interesting insights. Following the skewed distribution of firms, the technological areas in which Flanders is able to build, a strong position are very specific: printing technology, weaving technology, photography and recently also telecommunications. Weak positions are outspoken in car technology. Linking these strengths and weaknesses in technological areas to economic activity revealed an important mismatch between both. Most of the Flemish patents are in sectors without any comparative advantage, while most of the sectors where Flanders does hold a comparative advantage, like chemicals and pharmaceuticals, do not show strong technological advantages in terms of patents. Given the mismatch that was detected between technological positions and economic advantages, it is of crucial importance to better understand the (missing) links between the various actors in the regional innovation system. The analysis points out two important issues. The large and growing number of foreign applications to Belgian/Flemish inventors and the large number of subsidiaries of foreign firms among Belgian/Flemish applications illustrate the pervasiveness of the foreign dimension in the Belgian/Flemish technological landscape. Also very specific to the Belgian/Flemish situation, is the limited importance of universities or research centers in terms of patenting activities.

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Abstract

Variety and revue shows played a significant role in popular culture during the first half of the 20th century. Serving as a typical genre of cosmopolitan urban entertainment, these productions consisted of international acts, where a ‘foreign’ act was mostly defined by music, visual appearances and performance style; thus, not exclusively by the actual origin of the performer. This paper aims to analyze the presence and influence of Hungarian (style) acts in Berlin in three different socio-political contexts: the Weimar Republic, the NS-Zeit, and the Nachkriegszeit until the Berlin Wall was erected. Three large venues, the Plaza, the Scala and the Wintergarten (ca. 3000 seats each) defined the urban live entertainment sphere from 1920 onwards. These venues held shows until 1944. After the Second World War, only one large hall was opened in the destroyed city, the Friedrichstadt-Palast (in the Soviet occupation zone), which became a representative venue for East-Berlin as well as the GDR. The fact that Hungarian (style) acts were present in Berlin shows without a break during the entire research period shows that it did not depend on governmental cultural policies. The Hungarian show constituted a complex phenomenon which generated interest in the audience, guaranteeing their regular appearance. This analysis is based on primary sources; namely, a photography and programs collection housed at the Stadtmuseum Berlin. Moreover, Hungarian and German professional journals were utilized in this research.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Mónika Ecsedy, Illés Kovács, Róbert Gergely, Katalin Gombos, Judit Meisel, Andrea Kovács, Cecilia Czakó, and Zoltán Zsolt Nagy

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés és célkitűzés: A Navilas® 577s mikropulzuslézerrel végzett kezelés biztonságosságának és hatásosságának vizsgálata diabeteses maculaoedemában. Módszer: Retrospektív vizsgálatunkba diabeteses maculaoedema miatt gondozott és legalább 6 hónapos utánkövetéssel rendelkező, korábban Navilas® 577s mikropulzuslézer-kezelésen átesett 28 beteg 46 szemét válogattuk be. Minden szemen optikaikoherencia-tomográfia (OCT) vastagsági térkép navigált, nonkontakt, küszöb alatti mikropulzuslézer-kezelés történt egy alkalommal. A kezelést megelőzően és az azt követő 6. hónapban rögzítettük a látóélesség, a centrális retinavastagság értékeit és az éreredetű endothelialis növekedési faktort (VEGF) gátló injekciók számát. A követési idő végén megvizsgáltuk a szemfenéki képnek a digitális fundusfotográfia és az átmetszeti OCT-képek segítségével észlelhető változásait. Eredmények: A vizsgált szemek közül 30 esetben a lézerkezelést korábbi centrális maculaoedema miatt VEGF-gátló injekciós kezelés előzte meg, míg 16 szem esetében primer lézerkezelés történt. A Navilas® 577s mikropulzuslézer-kezelést követően 6 hónappal sem a látóélesség, sem a centrális maculavastagság nem változott szignifikánsan egyik csoportban sem (p>0,05). Ugyanakkor a korábban injekciós kezelésben részesült szemek esetében a lézerkezelést megelőző 6 hónapban adott injekciók száma az átlagos 2,63 ± 1,18 értékről átlagosan 0,5 ± 0,73 értékre csökkent (p<0,001). A fundusfotókon és az átmetszeti OCT-scaneken a lézerkezelést követően egyetlen szem esetében sem találtunk látható pigmentelváltozásokat vagy hegesedést. Következetetés: Megfigyeléseink szerint a Navilas® 577s mikropulzuslézer-kezelés biztonságos a diabeteses maculaoedemás betegek kezelésében, továbbá a VEGF-gátlóval kezelt szemeken szerepet játszhat az injekciók számának csökkentésében. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(49): 2078–2085.

Summary. Introduction and objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of Navilas® 577s micropulse subthreshold laser in the treatment of non-center involved diabetic macular edema. Method: In this retrospective study, we included 46 eyes of 28 patients with diabetic macular edema, who were treated at least 6 months ago with Navilas® 577s micropulse laser. Laser treatment was navigated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular thickness map in subthreshold micropulse mode at one occasion. Data from visual acuity testing, retinal thickness, and the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections needed 6 months before and after treatment were registered. At the end of the follow-up, digital fundus photography and OCT radial scans were performed to evaluate any possible anatomical changes. Results: 30 eyes had previous anti-VEGF treatment for central macular edema, and in 16 eyes we performed the laser as primary treatment. At the end of the follow-up, no significant visual acuity or central retinal thickness change were observed (p>0.05). On the other hand, in the anti-VEGF pretreated group the number of injections decreased significantly from 2.63 ± 1.18 to 0.5 ± 0.73 (p<0.001). We did not find any pigmentary changes or visible signs of scaring on final fundus photography pictures or OCT radial scans. Conclusion: Navilas® 577s subthreshold microsecond laser proved to be a safe option in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. It can be very useful in anti-VEGF treated eyes by decreasing the number of injections needed. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(49): 2078–2085.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Milán Tamás Pluzsik and Miklós Schneider

A choroidearedők a szemfenéki vizsgálat során világos és sötét vonalakként megjelenő párhuzamos csíkokként ismerhetők fel. A diagnózis megállapítását az optikai koherencia tomográfia, a vörösmentes szemfenéki fotó, az autofluoreszcencia, valamint a fluoreszcein-angiográfia segítheti. A szerzők 70 éves férfi betegük esetét ismertetik, akit 1 hónapja fennálló jobb oldali látáspanasz miatt vizsgáltak. Pupillatágítást követő fundusvizsgálaton mindkét oldalon choroidearedőket észleltek. A choroidearedők a beteg látóélességét nem befolyásolták. Neurológiai kivizsgálás során nem találtak kóros neurológiai eltérést. A beteget 6 hónapig követték, ez idő alatt változás nem következett be. A szerzők kiemelik, hogy a choroidearedők gyakran nem kerülnek felfedezése, mert legtöbbször tünetmentesek. Etiológiájában számos ok felmerülhet, ezért az idiopathiás choroidearedő diagnózisa egyéb patológiás eltérések kizárásán alapul. A követés során a látóélesség és a szemfenéki kép ellenőrzése szükséges. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(27), 1083–1086.

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Abstract  

In the textualized universe of Modiano, the creative impulse is inextricably linked to the unstable framework in which such matter is cast. Utterances of language translate the power of transgression. The text is birthed as an object of inquiry, ultimately to be dismantled: the work is no less elliptical than it is auto-reflexive. As a self-fixed interrogator focused upon the residual matter that it is and which it only can be, it is no longer subservient to the references it struggles to invoke, much less to signify. Writing, then, is an unending auto-reflexive process of annihilation and reification, and subsists, as such, to the sole extent that it disassociates from all conventional voices of articulation. More obtusely, to “poeticize” is to re-transcribe—otherly and with abruptness—the withered sputtering(s) of the artistic imperative. Writing, like photography, aims and frames, slices the world into sequences and images—partial, scattered, at once undone so as to be resuscitated, briefly, again. The extant is eschewed. At stake and at center-stage : a propelled form of motivity, speed, accelerations and dead-stops, an aleatory array of unremitting shifts, “instantanées”—obstinately un-emblematic. Raging or controlled, the poem or the photo can only be a non-representational sliver, the transitory residue of an infinite combinatorics of possibles. Hence, arbitrary breaches, clamoring interruptions, ludic contortions of incompleteness. A curious dynamic.

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The oxidation in air and oxygen of iron (II) sulphide Fe1−xS was studied using TG, DTA, X-Ray powder photography and chemical analysis. A reaction sequence was deduced, in which in the temperature range 425–520‡ partial oxidation occurred forming FeSO4, FeS2, Fe3O4. Rapid oxidation to Fe2O3 was usually observed in the range 520–575‡ but under certain conditions this reaction did not occur. In the temperature range 575–625‡ oxidation of FeSO4 to [Fe2(SO4)3]2 · Fe2O3 took place. Decomposition of this material gave Fe2O3 as the final product at 725‡.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Csaba Kunos, Gusztáv Gulyás, Pál Pesthy, Eszter Kovács, and Zoltán Mátrai

, M. Y., Galdino, G.: Symmetrical breast reconstruction: is there a role for three-dimensional digital photography? Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 2003, 112 (6), 1582–1590. Nahabedian, M. Y.: Validating three

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Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors: Alexandra Anders, Zoltán Czajlik, Marietta Csányi, Nándor Kalicz, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, Pál Raczky, and Judit Tárnoki

This paper presents the results of a research project, which was launched in 1999 by the Institute of Archaeological Sciences of the ELTE. Our main goal was to create a register of Hungarian tell settlements. First we collected all available information on tell settlements from the archaeological literature and various museum archives. Following this preliminary data filtering, fifty of the initial 161 Neolithic sites and 116 of the 224 Bronze Age sites were classified as genuine tells or tell-like settlements. After that we determined the accurate location and co-ordinates of the sites using aerial photography called for the construction of a GIS database. The destruction (by erosion, by flood, etc.) of the tell settlements can be monitored virtually from one day to the other. In addition to a precise site condition assessment, the project yielded fresh information about settlement layouts, such as the presence of enclosures. At some sites, aerial photography was followed by a magnetometer survey.

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Résumé  

Denis Roche a commencé par inscrire son activité créatrice dans le cadre de la littérature, et, plus spécifiquement, dans cette branche de la littérature qui était la plus marquée par des déterminations génériques traditionnelles: la poésie. En dépit de toutes les audaces d'écriture, disons depuis Rimbaud ou Lautréamont ou Mallarmé, la convention poétique avait été maintenue, métriques et rhétoriques continuaient globalement à donner leurs formes aux différentes écritures aussi novatrices fussent-elles au regard de la tradition. Tout l’effort de Denis Roche est alors de tenter de montrer que ces formes de composition sont éculées et que la poésie, ne se soutenant que de ces conventions, n'existe pas. A ce niveau d'analyse, on peut dire que son écriture est parodique: elle exhibe la convention et en accentue l'arbitraire. Le procédé général est le suivant: le texte est disposé en lignes de vers, qui à vue d'oeil simulent l'alexandrin, mais ne sont pas comptées; la prose incluse dans ces « vers » a toutes les caractéristiques du style élevé, mais d'un groupe de mots à l'autre, sont opérées de telles décontextualisations, qu'il n'est possible de restituer aucun sens. Tel est donc le geste polémique. Il s'inscrit dans la logique de l'art moderne. Le problème reste de savoir s'il constitue à proprement parler une démonstration et pour qui, dans un contexte où cette logique semble s'être enlisée.

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Górcsövi Alakzatokr

Mokry-Mészáros Dezső Mikroszkopikus Látványra Építő Munkáiról

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author: Anna Váraljai

Abstract

In the 19th century, the concept of unconditional objectivity and authenticity was linked up with the techniques of photography and microphotography. As Robert Koch declared, the sight provided by the microscope was more authentic and real than what the eye could see, yet he modified his photos of bacteria by drawing so as to render their spatial features more spectacularly. In addition to the deliberate changes to promote scientific authenticity, another subconscious mechanism, the working of the imagination, must also be considered. The microscopic images also stimulated the fancy of scientific researchers, for the scientific images also had an abstract, fictitious character. As they elicited associations and carried aesthetic qualities, microscopic images soon became popular and widely reproduced souvenirs. They spread first in Switzerland, a few years later in Germany and Austria, providing new sources of inspiration for artists seeking novel ornamental trends around the turn of the century.

Dezső Mokry-Mészáros was the first artist in Hungary and one of the first ones in Europe to paint pictures inspired by microscopic images in 1904. Born at Sajóecseg in 1881, Mokry was a self-taught artist also well versed in the natural sciences. In 1903 he enrolled in the agricultural academy of Magyaróvár where he studied microbiology, botany, the use of the microscope under the guidance of the great scholars of the age. He acquired the difficult skill of microscopic drawing at that time. Apart from the mentioned aesthetic aspects of microscopic images, his pictures inspired by the microcosm were probably also influenced by publications of the microbiological results of his age as well as by vitalist philosophy. His first series, Life on an alien planet reveals that he knew Gusztáv Moesz' writing on the “micro jungle” of the living waters published in 1902 with vivid graphic illustrations. The vitalists traced life from water as its prime source and since the recent findings of microbiology appeared to confirm these ideas, Mokry exposed to the spectator the luxurious jungle of a secret underwater population invisible to the naked eye. The realism of his microscopic motifs is so strict that I managed to identify a lot of his ornaments of zoological and botanic origins (28 tissue sections, microscopic creatures). The working of the imagination is not detectable at the level of motifs but at the level of composition. Mokry juxtaposed fatty tissue and fungi spores, diatom and pollens in his pictures in ways that never occur in nature. He developed a picture structure from arbitrarily elongated formulae to evoke some underwater scenery often extending to the frames he had made himself. Although the actual use of the microscope and of the microscopic images ended around 1910, this motivic stock became fixed and he drew on it for his pictures on prehistory. Dezső Mokry-Mészáros died in Miskolc in 1970. A smaller part of his works — some 180 — are in private collections, the majority being in public museums including the Herman Otto Museum, Miskolc, the Hungarian National Gallery and the Museum of Naïve Art, Kecskemét.

Dezső Mokry-Mészáros was the first artist in Hungary to probe the microscopic world for new motifs, becoming the forerunning and for a long time the only representative of a western trend that popularized microscopic images as aesthetic values. The historical review of the emergence of the microscopic image as an aesthetic object, the identification of the motifs of microscopic origin and the comparison of the motifs with contemporaneous scientific publications have made it clear that Dezső Mokry-Mészáros' works can only be interpreted in full in an international context.

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