Authors:M. Golabadi, A. Arzani, and S. Mirmohammadi Maibody
Grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat is a crucial determinant of pasta quality and as such is an important economic factor. This study was carried out to determine the microsatellite markers (SSRs) as associated with GPC in durum wheat grown under normal and moisture stress conditions. F3 and F4 population derived from 151 F2 individuals developed from a cross between Oste-Gata (drought tolerant) and Massara-1 (drought susceptible) genotypes, were used. The population was evaluated under four environmental conditions (two irrigation regimes in two growing seasons). The results of single marker regression analysis (SMA) revealed that 2, 4 and 10 markers to be associated with GPC, test weight (TW) and 1000 grain weight (TGW), respectively. These markers explained between 4.4 and 21.8% of the phenotypic variation in either environmental condition. The most significant marker observed for GPC was located on 5B chromosome near Xgwm408 under normal conditions and the other marker was observed on 1A, explaining about 15% of phenotypic variance. However, it was not recognized any marker related to GPC under drought stress conditions. Xgwm408 marker was coincident with the markers identified for TW, TGW and components of grain yield under drought stress conditions. In spite of 5B, the other chromosomes such as 2B and 3B were related to quantitative traits like TW and TGW. Composite interval mapping (CIM) identified 4 and 5 putative minor and major QTL for TW and TGW, respectively. Two QTL near Xbarc101 and Xbarc124 markers on 3B and 2B chromosome, explained up to 45.2 and 6% of phenotypic variations of TGW and TW, respectively.
Authors:É. Erdei, H. Kovácsné Oskolás, G. Tikász, and P. Pepó
Five inbreds (UDL1, UDL4, UDL5, UDL6, 126) from our preliminary maize improvement program for increased starch content and some of their hybrids were grown in 2008 at the field of Horticultural Institute, Debrecen University. Three chemical parameters (starch-, protein-, oil content) and the weighing of one physical trait (thousand-kernel weight) were analyzed. The starch content varied from 64.29–70.80% in lines and from 70.84–72.29% in case of hybrids. Protein content in the dry material was between 9.04–12.62% in case of the parent lines and it was 7.61–9.56% in the single cross hybrids. Strong negative correlation (r = −0.834**) was found between starch and protein content of the examined hybrids. The oil content varied from 2.70–3.64% and 2.87–3.39% in lines and hybrids, respectively. The thousand-kernel weight (TKW) varied between 213.6–341.3 g in case of the lines and it was 314.3-426.3 g in hybrids. Significant differences were found among hybrids in TKW (SD5% = 34.66%). Heterosis was experienced in the starch content of UDH6 hybrid. Both the relative and absolute values of heterosis for starch content and kernel weight were positive for each single cross hybrid.
Authors:K. Balla, M. Rakszegi, S. Bencze, I. Karsai, and O. Veisz
Finding and improving wheat cultivars with good adaptability to abiotic stress is an important objective in breeding programmes. An experiment was set up in the climate chamber of the Martonvásár phytotron to test the effect of heat and drought stress on two winter wheat varieties and one variety of durum. Wheat plants exposed to 35°C and drought during grain filling exhibited altered agronomic and grain quality characteristics. Drought was found to have a much greater influence on yield and quality than heat stress. Reductions in the unextractable polymeric protein fraction and the glutenin-to-gliadin ratio indicated poorer grain yield quality as a result of drought, despite higher protein content. Quality deterioration was observed after drought, while heat stress had no noticeable influence on the protein quality of the three wheat genotypes, measured using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). The durum variety had a better ratio of protein components and a significantly higher Zeleny value when exposed to heat stress, although it had the lowest grain yield and grain/straw ratio.The most significant negative correlation was observed between the Zeleny value and the unextractable polymeric protein (UPP%) fraction after heat treatment and between the relative protein content and the albumin+globulin % (AG%) in the case of drought. These correlations testify that these parameters play an important role in determining the baking quality of wheat flour.
Authors:T. Lošák, J. Vollmann, J. Hlušek, J. Peterka, R. Filipčík, and L. Prášková
The influence of joint applications of N and S on false flax (Camelina sativa L.) growing was studied in a pot experiment. Nitrogen was applied as NH4NO3 at rates of 0.6 (N1)–0.9 (N2)–1.2 (N3) g per pot. Sulphur was applied as (NH4)2SO4 to achieve levels of 35 ppm (S1) and 55 ppm (S2) S-SO
. The number of branches per plant increased with the nitrogen doses (10.62–12.41–15.38). The N2 and N3 rates (4.91 g and 4.79 g, respectively) significantly increased the seed yields (g/plant) as compared to N1 (3.77 g). Straw yields (g/plant) and thousand-seed weight (g) increased significantly only with the highest level of nitrogen N3 (18.23 and 1.17, respectively) compared to N1 (16.52 and 1.06, respectively). Increasing levels of nitrogen (N1–N2–N3) reduced the oil content of seeds (40.79–38.40–37.66%), but increased the protein content (23.93–25.63–28.19%). The level of sulphur S2 significantly stimulated only the oil content to 39.36% compared to 38.54% with S1. At the same time a negative correlation was discovered between the oil and protein content in the seeds (r= −0.8164). The applied doses of nitrogen N2 and N3 significantly increased the total oil yields (1.88–1.80 g/plant) as well as the total protein yields (1.25–1.35 g/plant) compared to N1 (1.53 and 0.90 g/plant, respectively).
Authors:G. Peymanpour, B. Sorkhilalehloo, K. Rezaei, G. Najafian, and B. Pirayeshfar
Ten different Iranian cultivars of bread wheat (Alamoot, Alvand, Arta, Bahar, Chamran, Darya, Dez, Pishtaz, Shahriar and Tajan) were examined for their bread-making properties. To determine the best wheat cultivar, several quality attributes such as protein content on a dry basis (PRT), wet gluten content (WGL), Zeleny (ZLN) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation values, hardness of grain (HRD) and bread volume (BVOL) were measured. Additionally, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) of the wheat cultivars were studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two alleles (2 + 12 and 5 + 10) were identified at HMW-GS Glu-D1 locus. Significant correlations were found between PRT and each of the following parameters: ZLN (r = 0.67), BVOL (r = 0.73), HRD (r = 0.71) and 5 + 10 subunit (r = 0.66). Also, correlation between BVOL and HRD (r = 0.67) and that between subunit 5 + 10 and BVOL (r = 0.71) were significant. Among HMW-GSs, 5 + 10 subunit had significant influence on bread-making qualities. Significant positive correlations were obtained for LMW-GSs with HRD and ZLN. Considering the traits such as PRT, HRD, SDS, WGL, ZLN, BVOL, HMW-GS (5 + 10) and LMW-GSs, it was concluded that Bahar was the best choice for making bread. Tajan was ranked as the second best cultivar using the HRD, SDS, ZLN, BVOL, HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs data.
Authors:Adnan Eser, Hajnalka Kató, Laura Kempf, and Márton Jolánkai
Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.
The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.
Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.