“A Trope is a shift of a word or phrase from its proper meaning to another, in a way that has positive value” (Quint. 8. 6. 1). I treat the tropes in Roman rhetoric and grammar but it does not mean that I do not take into consideration the Greek. I scrutinize the tropes in the survived Roman and Greek rhetorics and grammars in order to establish the development of the theory of tropes. Versus Karl Barwick, I mean that the theory of tropes established itself in the first century B.C. under the influence of Peripatetic School.
A kutatást régóta foglalkoztatja a tévesen Aristotelésnek tulajdonított De mundo szerzősége. A cikk amellett érvel, hogy téves kiindulópont az anonim szerzőt valamelyik filozófiai iskolában keresni, mivel a mű csakis egy rétoriskolában jöhetett létre. Nem filozófiai, hanem retorikai mű. A későbbi korokból ismert nézet, miszerint Aristotelés írt ezoterikus és exoterikus műveket, a rétoriskolai hagyomány fényében átértelmezendő: a későbbi hagyományban exoterikus műveknek tartott könyvek a retorikai hagyományban keletkeztek, de az utókor Aristotelésnek tulajdonította őket. Ilyen művek a De mundo, a Secreta secretorum stb.
This study deals with the Ancient Latin and Old Hungarian adaptations of the most drastic myth of Tereus, Philomela and Progne. Ovid inserted the story into the 6th book of the Metamomorphoses (lines 424–674). István Gyöngyösi, called “Hungarian Ovid” by right, adapted an Ovidian text in compliance with baroque literary and translation aspects. The translation makes part of the poem called Csalárd Cupido (Fraudulent Cupido) composed in hardly identifiable epic genre in the 17th century. The Ovidian insertion became the third part of the four-part poem, focusing on the demonstration of the outrages caused by Cupido. The main characteristics of the Gyöngyösi’s adaptation are: the domestication (for example in the case of the Dionysian rites), the large insertions, the enlargement and amplification, the borrowings and changings of the motifs and patterns and the spectacular actualisation. The motive of the fire is, for example, much more emphased in the Hungarian version. Both of the authors makes capital of the rhetorics, but the Hungarian text turns up the rhetorical elements and uses them as the instrument or device of the retardation and of the itemization or specification. The animal motifs being found several times in the text are used to exagerate or heighten the drastic apspects and to point out to demonstrate some animal qualities of the human beeings.
Politics and literature traditionally developed in a close contact with each other in Hungary. This paper argues that this intimacy had a particular reason: the fact that Latin educational ideals determined the way youth were brought up well into the 20th century. This had an impact on the way politics was understood here, including the fact that parliamentary debates were carried out in Latin well into the early 19th century.And this had a further consequence as well: literature was not viewed simply as an autonomous field of activity, aiming only at aesthetic merits, but as a way to reflect on the fate of the nation. Lawyers had a professional training in rhetoric and therefore they had a familiarity with classical literature, which led many of them towards their own creative writing. And professional writers, too, had no other education than that of the Latin Christian-Humanist model, which made them representatives of the nation, as well as followers of earlier, classical patterns of writing. These features played a major role in the formation of the two heroes of the paper, the poets Dániel Berzsenyi and Ferenc Kölcsey, who had an internal conflict between each other, but who both embodied the type of late humanist political writers, so characteristic of the reform era of this region of Central Europe.
The paper discusses the strategies and the rhetorical elements of the Norwegian Inner Mission during a period of political and cultural conflict the 1920’s and 1930’s.Special attentions paid to understanding the ambivalence between premodern values and modern strategies as they were expressed by one of the leaders of one of the inner mission organisations, professor of theology Ole Hallesby (1879 –1961).In his th nking, the explicit aim of the nner mission activities was the rechristianization of Norway, the means were actions organised according to the modern soc ety, but the cultural and soc al ideal was the non-secularzed, premodern Norway – as opposed to urban pluralism. Probably, this ambivalence made the inner mission strategy a political failure.
Betrachtung des Todes
, a late little masterpiece by the composer, represents the simultaneity of the old and the new. The text is the second verse of Gellert’s fourteen-verse poem ‘Wie sicher lebt der Mensch, der Staub!’, No. 50 in the volume
Geistliche Oden und Lieder
, 1757. In the short catalogue at the end of the volume Gellert names the hymn ‘Herr Jesu Christ, meines Lebens Licht’, as the appropriate melody for the poem. Haydn’s vocal trio with
is perhaps the most extraordinary setting in the series of the
(Hob. XXVb:3). Its harmonies and key changes uncannily foreshadow the language of Schubert and Mendelssohn. The musical representation of the poetic lines, on the other hand, is full of rhetorical devices. Most startling is the presence of figured bass, as an anachronistic code for the keyboard accompaniment. Co-existence of Baroque and Romantic, or ‘First Viennese Modernism’ (James Webster): the roots of the composer’s professional education preserved in a highly innovative setting of an old Protestant poem, in the very last years of the eighteenth century.
This paper seeks to shed light on Quintilian’s conception of the orator who combines moral integrity, political wisdom and rhetorical expertise. A key for understanding this concept lies in Quintilian’s polemically distorted depiction of the rude and insolent crowd of contemporary self-appointed philosophers, who serve as counterparts to the orators. While Cicero’s famous word of the discidium linguae atque cordis has enjoyed much attention among scholars, the interpretation of the discidium by one of Cicero’s most fervent admirers has been widely neglected: Quintilian carries out a distinct revaluation of the two parties — philosophers and orators — by constructing a diametrically opposed scenario to the one Cicero had drawn of the origins of the discidium in De inventione and De oratore. In the proem, Quintilian says that men of little intelligence (infirmiora ingenia) had insolently laid claim on the word ‘philosophy’, but in fact never bothered about philosophical truth. The other party, the orators, consisted of men of profound erudition and active political engagement, and were far superior to the so-called studiosi sapientiae. This led Quintilian to the pointed statement decidedly in favour of the orators: facere enim optima quam promittere maluerunt. Quintilian’s polemic against the self-appointed philosophers of his age, who form a considerable part of the Roman aristocracy, is in fact an apologetic construction to save the reputation of the rhetorician and orator from common contemporary accusations.
It appears that there is little to add to the research of the textual connections between the first chapters of the
Res Gestae Divi Augusti
. Philologists and classical historians have maintained for a long time that Tacitus
the autobiography of Augustus. On the other hand, the untrue claims of the
are obvious, its historical unreliability is supported by its historiographical reception as well. If the
uses and cites this work as a source, that can be said at least astonishing. This paper looks for the parallels at the level of
. Thus we can read the Tacitean text as a rhetorically formal speech, answering the autobiography of Augustus.