The article aims to assess the effectiveness of the non-proliferation regime established more than 40 years ago with the adoption of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Since that time the international community had achieved considerable success in the prevention of nuclear weapons’ proliferation. Nevertheless, while noting the results of the NPT and the verification system established under that instrument, one cannot remain silent about the shortcomings of the system and the non-compliance with some of its provisions. By its structure and provisions the NPT has divided States into two groups, distinguishing those possessing and those not possessing nuclear weapons. In effect, the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties to the NPT are tailored to the group to which they belong, and the gravest violation of the NPT is that when States seek to change their status as defined in the NPT, notably by trying to munfacture or control of nuclear weapons. Under the NPT, research in, production and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes are inalienable rights, but their exercise should be in keeping with the basic obligation of nonnuclear-weapon States under the Treaty not to acquire in any form nuclear weapons and not to carry out unauthorized nuclear activities under the guise of their peaceful nuclear programs. While emphasizing the need to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, the article describes in nutshell the nuclear program of two States (the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) which gave cause for serious international concern.
Csonka-Takacs , Eszter 2010 The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Service of our Living and Surviving Tradition - Task and Opportunities in Hungary . In Hoppal , Mihaly (ed
. Houndmills & London : Macmillan Press , 13 – 25 .
K urin , Richard 2004 : Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in the 2003 UNESCO Convention: A Critical Appraisal . In: Museum International , Vol. 56, Nos 1–2 . Oxford : Blackwell Publishing
wonders about the broadness of an empty road, the international or regional community, domestic government, or judiciary clarify the limits. Accordingly, the same crash barriers should be safeguarding the personal space of an individual. To what extent are
outlook and income inequality. Better fiscal rules and good fiscal institutions are needed to safeguard growth- and distribution friendly expenditures in a crisis. References Aghion , P. – Akcigit , U. – Bergeaud , A. – Blundell , R. – Hemous
Authors:A. Bosko, S. Croft, S. Philips, and R. Gunnink
Nondestructive measurements of γ-ray and X-ray emissions are often made to characterize special nuclear materials. Various
computer codes are available to determine the relative isotopic composition of uranium or plutonium (along with certain other
associated nuclides) from analysis of the spectra resulting from such measurements. MGA (Gunnink, Proceedings of the 9th ESARDA
symposium on safeguards and nuclear management 167, 1987) and MGAU (Gunnink et al., Proceedings of the IAEA symposium on international
safeguards 541, 1994) are among the major isotopic codes. The purpose of this study was to investigate MGA and MGAU performance
versus energy resolution of the counting system.
Authors:J. Ely, K. Anderson, D. Bates, R. Kouzes, C. Lo Presti, R. Runkle, E. Siciliano, and D. Weier
Plastic scintillator material is often used for gamma-ray detection in many applications due to its relatively good sensitivity
and cost-effectiveness compared to other detection materials. However, due to the dominant Compton scattering interaction
mechanism, full energy peaks are not observed in plastic scintillator spectra and isotopic identification is impossible. Typically
plastic scintillator detectors are solely gross count detectors. In some safeguards and security applications, such as radiation
portal monitors for vehicle screening, naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM) often triggers radiation alarms and
results in innocent or nuisance alarms. The limited energy information from plastic scintillator material can be used to discriminate
the NORM from targeted materials and reduce the nuisance alarm rate. An overview of the utilization of the energy information
from plastic scintillator material will be presented, with emphasis on the detection capabilities and potential limitations
for safeguards and security applications.
A new neutron activation technique has been developed for the determination of uranium element concentration and235U isotope abundance in nuclear safeguards and reference material samples based on the activation of bare and cadmium-covered samples with different thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratios and on the combination of the two corre-sponding delayed-fission neutron measurements. The principle of the new technique can be applied also to improve multi-element neutron activation analysis.
Linear correlations between burnup, Pu/U- and U5/U0-ratios on the one hand and154Eu/137Cs or134Cs/137Cs ratios on the other hand have been proved to exist in the case of spent WWER fuel. The possibility of using such correlations
for safeguards to determine the235U and Pu content of fuel assemblies has been demonstrated. The results agree well with theoretical calculations using the
COFIP and COHN codes.
A new computerised neutron activation technique permits rapid nondestructive simultaneous elemental and isotopic uranium analysis with various applications, such as nuclear material standardization and safeguards analysis. The technique consists of dual cyclic neutron activation in a differentiated neutron flux spectrum at bare and cadmium covered irradiation positions and subsequent delayed fission neutron counting. Calibration curve fitting by polynomial approximation and data processing by GRAPHER and LOTUS 123 software computer programs gave satisfactory results.